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Following the year rule of Leonid BrezhnevAndropov served in the post from November until his death in February Earlier in his career, Andropov served as the Soviet ambassador to Hungary from toduring which time he was involved in the suppression of the Hungarian Uprising. In this position, he oversaw a massive crackdown on dissent that was carried out via mass arrests and the wholesale application of involuntary psychiatric commitment of people deemed "socially undesirable".
As Brezhnev's health declined during the latter years of his leadership, Andropov formed a troika alongside Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and Defense Minister Dmitry Ustinov that ultimately came to dominate Soviet policy. During his short tenure, Andropov sought to eliminate corruption and inefficiency within the Soviet system by investigating longtime officials for violations of party discipline and criminalizing truancy in the workplace. The Cold War intensified, and he was at a loss for how to handle the growing crisis in the Soviet economy.
His major long-term impact was bringing to the fore a new generation of young reformers, as energetic as himself, including Yegor LigachyovNikolai Ryzhkovand, most importantly, Mikhail Gorbachev. On 9 Februaryhe died after leading the country for only 15 months. There has been much contention over his family background.
His mother, Yevgenia Karlovna Fleckenstein, none of the official sources mention her name was a school teacher who died in His earliest documented name was Grigory Cryptopsy - And Then Youll Beg Andropov-Fyodorov; he changed it to Yuri Andropov several years later.
To make things more complicated, he named different dates of her death at various occasions:, and In Andropov went through a check when he applied for Communist Party membership, and it turned out that "the sister of his native maternal grandmother" he called her his aunt who was living with him and who supported the legend of his Ryazan peasant origins was in fact his nurse who had been working at Fleckenstein's long before he was born.
It was also reported that his mother belonged to merchantry. Der Schnitter Tod - ASP - Zaubererbruder - Der Krabat-Liederzyklus fact Karl Fleckenstein was a rich jewel merchant, owner of a jewellery store, and so was his wife who took over her husband's business after his accidental death in he was confused for a German during the infamous anti-German pogrom in Moscow, although Andropov preferred to refer to it as anti-Jewish.
He gave different versions of his father's fate: in one case he divorced his mother soon after his birth, and in another he died of illness. The Fyodorov surname belonged to his second stepfather since Viktor Fyodorov, a machinist's assistant turned school teacher.
Andropov was thoroughly interviewed four times, yet he was so convincing that he managed to have all charges dropped. He joined the Communist Party in According to the official biography, during World War II Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finlandalthough modern researchers didn't manage to find any traces of his supposed partisan squad. Between andhe studied at the university of Petrozavodsk.
He was appointed an inspector and then the head of a subdepartment of the Committee. In Julyhe was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Hungary and held this position during the Hungarian Revolution. Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian uprising.
He convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev that Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 intervention was necessary. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 topple. When other Communist regimes later seemed at risk — in Prague inin Kabul inin Warsaw inhe was convinced that, as in Budapest inonly armed force could ensure their survival".
InAndropov returned to Moscow from Budapest in order to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers' Parties in Socialist Countries, a position he held until Inhe was relieved of his work in the Central Committee apparatus and appointed head of the KGB on recommendation of Mikhail Suslovat the same time promoted a Candidate Member of the Politburo. He gained additional powers inwhen he was promoted to full member of the Politburo.
During the events of the Prague Spring inAndropov was the main advocate for "extreme measures" being taken against Czechoslovakia. Throughout his career, Andropov aimed to achieve "the destruction of dissent in all its forms" and insisted that "the struggle for human rights was a part of a wide-ranging imperialist plot to undermine the foundation of the Soviet state".
These measures were meticulously documented throughout his time as KGB chairman by the underground Chronicle of Current Eventsa samizdat publication which was itself finally forced out of existence with its last published issue, dated 30 June On 3 Julyhe made a proposal to establish the Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 Fifth Directorate for dealing with the political opposition  : 29 ideological counterintelligence.
After the assassination attempt against Brezhnev in JanuaryAndropov Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 the interrogation of the captured gunman, Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin. The repression of dissidents   included plans to maim the dancer Rudolf Nureyevwho had defected in There are some who believe that Andropov was behind the deaths of Fyodor Kulakov and Pyotr Masherovthe two youngest members of the Soviet leadership.
InAndropov convinced Brezhnev that the Ipatiev HouseVarious - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 Tsar Nicholas II and his family were murdered by communist revolutionaries, had become a site of pilgrimage for covert monarchists. In MarchAndropov and the Politburo initially opposed their subsequent decision to intervene militarily in Afghanistan.
The invasion led to the extended Soviet—Afghan War — and a boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow by 66 countries, something of concern to Andropov since spring On 10 Decemberin the face of Poland's Solidarity movementAndropov, along with Mikhail Suslov and Wojciech Jaruzelski persuaded Brezhnev that it would be counterproductive for the Soviet Union to invade Poland by repeating Prague From towhile still chairman of the KGB, Andropov opposed plans to occupy Poland after the emergence of the Solidarity movement and promoted reform-minded party cadres including Mikhail Gorbachev.
His appointment was received in the West with apprehension, in view of his roles in the KGB and in Hungary. At the time his personal background was a mystery in the West, with major newspapers printing detailed profiles of him that were inconsistent and in several cases fabricated. Andropov divided responsibilities in the Politburo with his chief deputy Konstantin Chernenko.
Andropov took control of organizing the work of the Politburo, supervising national defense, supervising the main issues of domestic and foreign policy and foreign trade, and making leadership assignments in the top ranks of the Party and the government.
Chernenko handled espionage, KGB, the Interior Ministry, party organs, ideology, and organizational matters, as well as propaganda, culture, science, and higher education. Was also given charge of the Central Committee. It was far too much for Chernenko to handle, and the other Politburo members were not given major assignments. At home, Andropov attempted to Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 the nation's economy by increasing its workforce's efficiency.
He cracked down on Soviet laborers' lack of discipline by decreeing the arrest of absentee employees and penalties for tardiness. Despite such reforms, Andropov refused to consider any changes that sought to dispense with the command economy introduced under Joseph Stalin.
In his memoirs, Mikhail Gorbachev recalled that when Andropov was the leader, Gorbachev and Nikolai Ryzhkovthe chairman of Gosplanasked him for access to real budget figures. In contrast to Brezhnev's policy of avoiding conflicts and dismissals, he began to fight violations of party, state and labour discipline, which led to significant personnel changes during an anti-corruption campaign against many of Brezhnev's cronies. Biographers including Solovyov and Klepikova and Zhores Medvedev have discussed the complex possibilities underlying the motivations of anti-corruption campaigning in the Soviet Union during the s and early s: at the same time Hora Staccato - Dana Dragomir - Fluty Romances it is true that Andropov fought corruption for moral, ethical, ascetic, and ideological reasons, it is also true that it was an effective way for party members from the police and security organizations to defeat competitors for power at the senior levels of the party.
Thus there was a certain inevitable amount of "what's better for the country also happens to align with what's best for my own power. Part of the complexity is that in the Brezhnev era, much corruption was implicitly tolerated and was pervasive although officially deniedand many a member of the police and security organizations themselves participated in it to various degrees, but only those organizations had access to the power to measure it and monitor its details.
In such an environment, anti-corruption campaigning is inherently a path by which police and security people have the potential or opportunity to appear to be white-hat heroes cleaning up the malfeasance of black-hat villains and 'coincidentally' increasing their own power, whereas there may Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 an underlying reality of one set Sufferers Heights - Roy Francis - Phase 1 Dub Wise Vol.
1&2 gray-hat antiheroes defeating another set of gray-hat antiheroes in a morally Love Letters In The Sand - Kayton & Iva Lee Roberts - Kayton & Iva Lee Roberts power struggle. This complex dynamic is perennial; 21st-century anti-corruption campaigns are just as subject to its possibilities as were 20th-century instances.
Andropov faced a series of foreign policy crises: the hopeless situation of the Soviet army in Afghanistan, threatened revolt in Poland, growing animosity with China, the polarization threat of war in the Middle East, Troubles in Ethiopia and South Africa. The most critical threat was the "Second Cold War" launched by American President Ronald Reagan and a specific attack on rolling back what he denounced as the " Evil Empire ".
Reagan was using American economic power, and Soviet economic weakness, to escalate massive spending on the Cold Waremphasizing high technology that Moscow lacked.
That included tanks and armored troop carriers, hundreds of fighter planes, as well as anti-aircraft systems, artillery systems, and all sorts of high tech equipment for which the USSR was the main supplier for its allies. Andropov's main goal was to avoid an open war. In foreign policy, the conflict in Afghanistan continued even though Andropov—who now felt the invasion was a mistake—half-heartedly explored options for a negotiated withdrawal.
Andropov's rule was also marked by deterioration of relations with the United States. During a much-publicized "walk in the woods" with Soviet dignitary Yuli Kvitsinsky, American diplomat Paul Nitze suggested a compromise for reducing nuclear missiles in Europe on both sides that was ultimately ignored by the Matie A Come - Beenie Man - Blessed. President Ronald Reagan famously labeled the Soviet Union an " evil empire ".
Reagan claimed this research program into ballistic missile defense would be "consistent with our obligations under the ABM Treaty". However, Andropov was dismissive of this claim, and said that "It is time they [Washington] stopped Engaging in this is not just irresponsible.
It is insane". In AugustAndropov made an announcement that the country was stopping all work on space-based weapons. One of his most notable acts during his short time as leader of the Soviet Union was in response to a letter from a year-old American child from Maine named Samantha Smithinviting her to the Soviet Union. She came, but he was too ill to meet with her, thus revealing his grave condition to the world.
Meanwhile, Soviet—U. Massive bad publicity worldwide came when Soviet fighters shot down a civilian jet liner, Korean Air Flight KALwhich carried passengers and crew.
Andropov kept secret the fact that the Soviet Union held in its possession the black box from KAL Which Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 the pilot had Made a typographical error when entering data in the automatic pilot. Soviet air defense system was unprepared to deal with a civilian airliner, and the shooting down was a matter of following orders without question.
Together with the low credibility created by the poor explanation in of the meltdown of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, the episode demonstrated an inability to deal with public relations crises; the propaganda system was only useful for individuals and states that were aligned with the Soviet Union.
Both crises were escalated by technological and organizational failures, compounded by human error . In FebruaryAndropov suffered total renal failure. In Augusthe entered the Central Clinical Hospital in western Moscow on Da Weasel - Dialectos Da Ternura permanent basis, where he would spend the remainder of his life.
In late JanuaryAndropov's health deteriorated sharply and due to growing toxicity in his bloodhe had periods of falling consciousness. He died on 9 February at in his hospital room at age According to the Soviet post mortem medical report, Andropov suffered from several medical conditions: interstitial nephritisnephrosclerosisresidual hypertension and diabeteswhich were Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 by chronic kidney deficiency.
A four-day period of nationwide mourning was announced. Andropov was succeeded by Konstantin Chernenkowho seemed to mirror Andropov's tenure. Chernenko had already been afflicted with severe health problems when he ascended to the USSR's top spot, and served an even Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 time in office 13 months. Like Andropov, Chernenko spent Never Never Never - Max Greger - In The Mood For Hits of his time hospitalized, and also died in office, in March Andropov lived at 26 Kutuzovsky Prospektthe same building in which Suslov and Brezhnev also lived.
He was first married to Nina Ivanovna; she was born not far from the Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21 farm in which Andropov was born. In she was diagnosed with cancer and underwent a successful operation. She had suffered a nervous breakdown during the Hungarian Revolution of Andropov's chief guard informed Tatyana about the death of her husband.
She was too grief-stricken to join in the procession and during the funeral her relatives helped her to Various - 100 Пудов Хитов - №21. Before the lid could be closed on Andropov's coffin, she bent to kiss him.
She touched his hair and then kissed him again. Ina respectful minute film was broadcast in which Tatyana not even seen in public until Andropov's funeral reads love poems written by her husband.