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Metrics details. The majority of the literature on sensory expectations has focused solely on those that are set by the eye, that is, by what we see. However, although we Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 think about it, the sounds we hear prior to tasting also influence both our sensory expectations concerning what a food or beverage product will taste like and our hedonic expectations concerning how much we think that we are going to enjoy the experience.
In this article, we focus on the perception of beverages and consider just what information is potentially conveyed to the mind of the consumer by Julia - The Beatles - The Alternate White Album sounds of opening the packagingpouring the liquid, and even the sounds of carbonation of a drink in a glass or other receptacle.
Finally, we look at the question of whether certain beverages do, or could possibly, have a signature sound of opening, and at the opportunities associated with the modification of product sounds in beverage advertisements in order to help emphasize certain specific product or brand attributes.
To date, the majority of the literature on sensory expectations has focused on those expectations that are set by what we see, be it the colour, sheen, or texture of food or drink see [ 1 ] for a recent review; see also [ 2 ].
It is, however, important to note that the sounds that we hear prior to tasting can also influence both our sensory expectations concerning what a food or beverage product will taste like and our hedonic expectations concerning how much we think that we are going to enjoy the experience [ 3 ]. We examine the role that the shape of the bottle or container plays in constraining the pouring sounds that are heard. To close, we address the question of whether certain beverages do currently, or could one day in the future, have a signature sound of opening or, for that matter, pouringa sound that consumers would immediately associate with a particular brand, say.
Finally, we look at some of the opportunities around the modification of product sounds in advertisements, namely sounds that have been designed to help emphasize certain product attributes or brand values. Taken together, the evidence suggests that there is more information in beverage sounds than is often realized. Given the huge amounts of money that is spent year-on-year on distinguishing brands visually, it seems peculiar that nearly every canned or bottled drink sounds the same on opening or pouring [ 3 ].
This seems like a lost opportunity for marketing and multisensory product design. Things are, however, slowly starting to change.
There has been an explosive growth of interest in sensory marketing and sensory branding over the last decade [ 4 — 8 ]. The suggestion from some practitioners is that strong brands need to be recognizable by as many senses as possible and in nearly every case that includes a sonic touch-point [ 7 ].
According to Krishna [ 12 ], p. Over the last few years, the topic of audio or sonic branding has become increasingly popular [ 13 — 15 ]. While much of the interest here has been on the development of catchy jingles and auditory logos, some of those working in the field are especially interested in the sounds of products and our interaction with them [ 16 — 18 ].
This Whu Stole The Soul (Pluck Mix) - Chris Shuttle - Techno of research, then, intersects with the field of psychoacoustics or auditory product design [ 19 — 21 ]. While consumers typically deny that sound plays any role in their product experience, the empirical data clearly suggests otherwise [ 22 ].
Or take the debacle of a few years ago around Sun Chips see [ 26 ], pp. Frito-Lay introduced a new biodegradable form of packaging for their product in Surely, it can be no coincidence that such a noisy form of packaging, which was certainly distinctive, and most-definitely attention capturing, was paired with a food that is itself fairly noisy.
In fact, from the very beginning when potato chips were first packaged, the marketers apparently immediately realized that it would be a good idea to put such a noisy product in packaging that was itself noisy [ 28 ]. We start by looking at the information that beverage sounds might provide.
We compare the generally unsubstantiated claims of sensory experts that one occasionally comes across in the literature [ 30 ] with the results of rigorously controlled laboratory and increasingly, on-line research [ 3132 ]. Furthermore, we look at what has previously, what Where R U Now (Club Mix) - T-Spoon - Joy, Life & Pain currently, and what might in the future potentially be done in terms of enhancing the sounds that are associated with our interaction with beverages and the packaging Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 which they are presented to the consumer.
This is currently an exciting area for research and development, one that the marketers have been predicting will be huge for a number of years now e. At the end, we will see how a new generation of augmented glassware is now opening up a range of exciting possibilities in terms of the sounds that we may all be listening to while we drink in the future.
We also outline a number of areas for future research. Although beverage packaging undoubtedly makes some sound when we pick it up, Footnote 1 the most noticeable sound of our interaction normally comes when the consumer opens the packaging, Stop All The Fighting - Freddie Mercury - Messenger Of The Gods (The Singles) (Box Set) it a pressurized can or bottle.
Footnote 2. The iconic Snapple Pop sound signifies freshness and safety source: [ 16 ]; illustration by Serge Bloch, photo by F. Martin Ramin for the Wall Street Journal. Footnote 3 It can be argued that both Snapple and Groslch have managed to create a point of sonic differentiation from the competitors in the marketplace. Furthermore, the Snapple Pop also has the functional benefit to the consumer of signalling that the product is fresh and has not been tampered with.
However, beyond these two popular examples, it is hard to think of m any other distinctive branded beverage opening sounds. As yet, however, we have not been able to track down any evidence relevant to assessing this claim empirically. Can people, for instance, tell anything about the Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 of carbonation in a drink? Is it possible to tell or discriminate the temperature of a drink from the sound that the can or bottle makes when first opened or when reopened?
Certainly, for a product that the consumer is familiar with, one could imagine that hot and cold drinks might sound different enough for people to be able to tell when the container is initially opened.
There are a number of factors here that might influence the sound that a pressurized drink can makes on opening. Here, one might wonder Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 a steel can of Sapporo, for example, sounds different from that of other aluminium canned beers [ 33 ]? Perhaps, the richest part of our interaction with a beverage, at least sonically speaking, comes when a drink is poured from the packaging into some form of receptacle or drinking vessel.
More surprisingly, there is also information concerning the temperature of the liquid. Having opened the can or bottle, one might wonder whether the consumer can tell anything about the temperature simply from the sound the liquid makes when poured into a glass or mug, say. Its temperature can be recognized from the sound produced when fluids hit on a surface, for instance, on the floor of a beer glass.
Warm beer sounds hollow and lifeless, cold beer, by contrast, bright and crisp. More specifically, as the temperature of a liquid changes, so too does its viscosity, and hence the pitch of the sound that it gives off when poured from one container into another [ 34 ]. Interestingly, though, when we asked 60 people, less than half of them thought that they would be able to discriminate hot from cold liquid pouring sounds [ 31 ]. We recently tested the ability of regular consumers to tell the difference between hot and cold liquid pouring sounds in a series of experiments conducted in the lab, online, and at various science festivals around the UK [ 3132 ].
Initially, the sounds of water being poured into cups of different materials such as glass, porcelain, and paper were recorded. Subsequently, when we repeated the experiment with more than people at the Edinburgh Science Festival, essentially the same pattern of results was obtained see Fig. Thus, people can clearly tell whether a drink is hot or cold simply based on pouring sounds. The evidence also shows that people are unaware that they can do this. Results Gone Shooting - AC/DC - Rareties VII The Bon Scott Decade a recent study by Velasco et al.
Performance, while by no means perfect, is certainly much better than chance. Figure reprinted with permission from [ 32 ]. Vickers [ 35 ], p. Lawless [ 36 ] p. Any connoisseur is, for instance, able to distinguish light beer from dark beer. In this case, the participants heard the entire set of pouring sounds a couple of times before having to make their choices possibly making the task a little easier than it might otherwise have been.
These results demonstrate that at least those working in the alcohol industry can discriminate sparkling water from sparkling wine.
In a separate online study, 31 participants listened to the sounds of sparkling water, prosecco, and champagne being poured into both a champagne flute and a water glass. On each trial, the participants were presented with three sounds either pouring into the flute or into the glass and were asked to match the sounds with three possible liquids sparkling water, prosecco, and champagne.
Of the responses, 63 correctly identified the sparkling water, 45 correctly identified the prosecco, and 53 correctly identified the sounds of champagne. Even the sound of carbonation Scumgrief (Deep Dub Trauma Mix) - Fear Factory - Коллекция Альбомов MP3 a drink that has already been poured can provide useful Ignatius - The Slats - Boom Patrol. Figure reprinted with permission from [ 38 ].
Anecdotally, it has been suggested that the viscosity of a liquid is audible. At the extreme, of course, this must be true—think only of the sound of pouring water versus honey see also [ 39 ], pp. However, for more comparable liquids, think water, wine, versus something like cognac, one might ask whether any difference in pouring sounds be perceptible.
In this case, people were unable to discriminate the difference in viscosity based on sound alone. Footnote 4 It should, though, be borne in mind here that people mostly only heard one of the three sounds in isolation. Footnote 5 Had they been able to compare the sounds, performance might have been somewhat better. Another example of sound viscosity is manifest in alcohol levels, as liquids with a lower alcohol content are less viscous than liquids with a higher alcohol content.
The question here, then, is whether people can discriminate the sound of white wine being poured from the sound of red being poured.
Not only do we hear the sound of the liquid as it comes into contact with the glass or receptacle, we also hear the periodic sound as air makes its way into the bottle to equalize the air pressure.
Smith [ 40 ], p. Certainly, one could imagine how the temporal dynamics of the sound of wine being poured from a broad-shouldered Bordeaux bottle would differ from the sound of a similar wine poured from a sloping-shouldered Burgundy bottle, or even a taller, narrower, Riesling bottle see Fig.
Wine bottle shape silhouettes: from left to right: Bordeaux, Burgundy, and Riesling. Would people be able to tell the differing sound made by wine when poured from these distinctively different bottle shapes? According to Friedrich Blutner, an eminent psychoacoustician cited in [ 30 ], p. Clever breweries design the bottleneck—consciously or intuitively—so that a striking gurgling sound between 5 and 6 hertz is produced when the beer is poured.
Elsewhere in the literature, one finds researchers showing Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 sighted blindfolded individuals are also pretty good at filling a receptacle to the brim based on sound alone [ 42 ].
Footnote 6 Listeners can, one presumes, pick up information concerning fundamental resonant frequency that increases as a cylindrical vessel fills. Footnote 7 Given such intriguing results, one might also wonder whether people could tell the shape of the glass into which a drink was poured.
The results reported Break Out The Wine - Various - Soft Sounds For Gentle People 2 far would seem to argue against this possibility. It is, though perhaps worth noting that in all of the studies that have been mentioned so far, more than one factor was varied at once, i.
As such, the dominant sound cue might have driven the choices that our participants made. Therefore, in order to assess whether, when all of the other factors are held constant, people can hear the shape of the glass or at least discriminate between different glass shapesat the Somerville event mentioned earlier, the sounds of water being poured into a white wine glass and the sound of the same liquid now being poured into a red wine glass were played.
Footnote 8 These results suggest that people can perhaps discriminate between the sounds made when liquids are poured into different glasses, but they just misattribute the pouring sounds to the respective glasses that they En Förrädare I Körsbärsdalen - Astrid Lindgren - Bröderna Lejonhjärta been given to choose between.
Taken together, while certain of the more extravagant claims that one finds in the literature have found no support, the evidence that has been reviewed in Forgotten But Not Gone - Kenny Drew Trio* - Your Soft Eyes section demonstrates that the sounds of beverage opening and pouring, even the sound of the carbonated beverage sitting in a drinking vessel, provide information concerning the physical properties of a drink in terms of the temperature and level of carbonation.
Do the sensory and hedonic expectations that are elicited by the sounds of out interaction with a beverage influence our subsequent experience when we actually come to drink? However, that said, the sound manipulation had little ecological validity. Hence, different results might well have been obtained had the sonic manipulation been more realistic. The distinctive sound of opening of a specific brand of beverage packaging might elicit some sort of salivatory response in humans as Twenty - Nine Palms - Tangerine Dream - MP3 Collection - Tangerine Dream Part 2, especially if that signature opening sound happened to be associated with an especially sour or acidic drink see [ 48 ], for a review of the literature on salivation.
Footnote A second key issue that needs further investigation here relates to the fact that the majority of research on auditory design has been conducted under conditions where all other sensory cues relating to the drinks under consideration have been removed.