Label: Mapleshade Records - 01632 • Format: CD Album • Country: US • Genre: Jazz, Folk, World, & Country • Style: Afrobeat
It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation.
Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expressionand in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtimeas well as European military band music.
As jazz spread around A Bailar Con La Cubana - Sin Palabras - Orisha Dreams world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles.
New Orleans jazz began in the early s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrillesbiguineragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bandsKansas City jazza hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz a style that emphasized musette waltzes were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation.
Cool jazz developed near the end of the s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines. The s saw the emergence of free jazzwhich explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures, and in the mids, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and bluesgospeland blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing.
Modal jazz developed in the late s, using the modeor musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late s and early s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music 's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound. In the early s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the s, such as Latin and Afro-Cuban jazz.
The origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasma slang term dating back to meaning "pep, energy".
The use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as in the Chicago Daily Tribune. It wasn't called that. It was spelled 'J-A-S-S'. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over years, from ragtime to the rock -infused fusion.
Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective Roy Black - Seine Großen Erfolge other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music. But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader,  defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music"  and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing ' ".
Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". A broader definition that Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration!
- Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities".
Duke Ellingtonone of jazz's most 黒月の森 - Yasunori Mitsuda - Xenogears Original Soundtrack figures, said, "It's all music.
Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as bluesa form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration!
- Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting on plantations. These work songs were commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational. Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical scorewith less attention given to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment.
The classical performer's goal is to play the composition as it was written. In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration! - Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and more on the performer.
Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures. In early Dixielanda. New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. In the swing era of the s—'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned by ear and memorized. Soloists improvised within these arrangements. In the bebop era of the s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the song was improvised.
Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions to allow musicians to improvise even more. In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments piano, guitardouble bass, and drums. The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that Ich Trinke - Hiss - Herz Und Verrat the song structure and complement the soloist.
Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form". An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. For some African Americans, jazz has drawn Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration!
- Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting to African-American contributions to culture and history. For others, jazz is Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration! - Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".
Papa Jack Lainewho ran the Reliance band in New Orleans in the s, was called "the father of white jazz". Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the s. These musicians helped change attitudes toward race in the U. Female jazz performers and composers have contributed to jazz throughout its history.
Women began playing instruments in jazz in the early s, drawing particular recognition on piano. When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands replaced them. Women were members of the big bands of Woody Herman and Gerald Wilson.
Beginning in the s, many women jazz instrumentalists were prominent, some sustaining long careers. Some of the most distinctive improvisers, composers, and bandleaders in jazz have been women. Jazz originated in the lateth to Believe In Me - :wumpscut: - Music For A Slaughtering Tribe century as interpretations of American and European classical music entwined with African and slave folk songs and the influences of West African culture.
By the 18th century, slaves in the New Orleans area gathered socially at a special market, in an area which later became known as Congo Square, famous for its African dances. Bythe Atlantic slave trade had brought nearlyAfricans to North America. An account says that they were making strange music Creole on an equally strange Crowfoot - Lets Sing A Song Together Every Day of 'instruments'—washboards, washtubs, jugs, boxes beaten with sticks or bones and a drum made by stretching skin over a flour-barrel.
Robert Palmer said of percussive slave music:. Usually such music was associated with annual festivals, when the year's crop was harvested and several days were set aside for celebration. As late asa traveler in North Carolina saw dancers dressed in costumes that included horned headdresses and cow tails and heard music provided by a sheepskin-covered "gumbo box", apparently a frame drum; triangles and jawbones furnished the auxiliary percussion.
There are quite a few [accounts] from the southeastern states and Louisiana dating from the Tumbling Dice - Linda Ronstadt - Tumbling Dice — Some of the earliest [Mississippi] Delta settlers came from the vicinity of New Orleans, where drumming was never actively discouraged for very long and homemade drums were used to accompany public dancing until the outbreak of the Civil War.
Another influence came from the harmonic style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals. However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonicrural blues and early jazz "was largely based on concepts of heterophony.
During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized the music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment.
In the mids the white New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted slave rhythms and melodies from Cuba and other Caribbean islands into piano salon music. The Black Codes outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were not preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba, Haiti, and elsewhere in the Caribbean.
African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping, clapping, and patting juba dancing. In the opinion of jazz historian Ernest Bornemanwhat preceded New Orleans jazz before was "Afro-Latin music", similar to what was played in the Caribbean at the time.
Tresillo shown below is the most basic and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in sub-Saharan African music traditions and the music of the African I Remain - Alanis Morissette - Live Philadelphia 2012 (DVD). Tresillo is heard prominently in New Orleans second line music and in other forms of popular music from that city from the turn of the 20th century to present.
In the post-Civil War period afterAfrican Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, and an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures. African-American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 19th century when the habanera Cuban contradanza gained international popularity.
John Storm Roberts states that the musical genre habanera "reached the U. Habaneras were widely available as sheet music and were the first written music which was rhythmically based on an African motif New Orleans native Louis Moreau Gottschalk 's piano piece "Ojos Criollos Danse Cubaine " was influenced by the composer's studies in Cuba: the habanera rhythm is clearly heard in the left hand.
Comparing the music of New Orleans with the music of Cuba, Wynton Marsalis observes that tresillo is the New Orleans "clave", a Spanish word meaning "code" or "key", as in the key to a puzzle, or mystery. Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz. The abolition of slavery in led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans.
Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in Theyre Spies, Arent They? - moi Caprice - The Art Of Kissing Properly. Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel showsand in vaudevilleduring which time many marching bands were formed.
Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed. Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African-American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hoganwhose hit songs appeared in Two years later, Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo known as "Rag Time Medley". Classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his " Original Rags " in and, inhad an international hit with " Maple Leaf Rag ", a multi- strain ragtime march with four parts that feature recurring themes and a bass line with copious seventh chords.
Its structure was the basis for many other rags, and the syncopations in the right hand, especially in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time. African-based rhythmic patterns such as tresillo and its variants, the habanera rhythm and cinquilloare heard in the ragtime compositions of Joplin and Turpin.
Joplin's "Solace" is generally considered to be in the habanera genre:   both of the pianist's hands play in a syncopated fashion, completely abandoning any sense of a march rhythm. Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre,  which originated in African-American Brother Ahs World Music Ensemble - Celebration!
- Music Of 4 Continents In An Afro-Jazz Setting of primarily the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from their spiritualswork songsfield hollersshouts and chants and rhymed simple narrative ballads.
The African use of pentatonic scales contributed to the development of blue notes in blues and jazz. Many of the rural blues of the Deep South are stylistically an extension and merger of basically two broad accompanied song-style traditions in the west central Sudanic belt:. Handy became interested folk blues of the Deep South while traveling through the Mississippi Delta. In this folk blues form, the singer would improvise freely within a limited melodic range, sounding like a field holler, and the guitar accompaniment was slapped rather than strummed, like a small drum which responded in syncopated accents, functioning as another "voice".
The primitive southern Negro, as he sang, was sure to bear down on the third and seventh tone of the B-Charme - This Is My World, slurring between major and minor. Whether in the cotton field of the Delta or on the Levee up St.
Louis way, it was always the same. Till then, however, I had never heard this slur used by a more sophisticated Negro, or by any white man. I tried to convey this effect