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Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a jugglerinvolving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art or sport. The most recognizable form of juggling is toss juggling. Juggling can be the manipulation of one object or many objects at the same time, most often using one or two hands but also possible with feet.
Jugglers often refer to the objects they juggle as props. The most common props are ballsclubsor rings. Some jugglers use more dramatic objects such as knivesfire torches or chainsaws.
The term juggling can also commonly refer to other prop-based manipulation skills, such as diaboloplate spinningdevil stickspoicigar boxescontact jugglinghoopingBlind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler and hat manipulation.
The words juggling and juggler derive from the Middle English jogelen "to entertain by performing tricks "which in turn is from the Old French jangler. There is also the Late Latin form joculare of Latin jocularimeaning "to jest".
From the 12th to the 17th century, juggling and juggler were the terms most consistently used to describe acts of magicthough some Sweet Thief - Lancee & Deadman - Shakesperience called the term juggling a lexicographical nightmare, Curtis Mayfield - Super Fly that it is one of the least understood relating to magic.
In the 21st century, the term juggling usually refers to toss jugglingwhere objects are continuously thrown into the air and caught again, repeating in a rhythmical pattern.
According to James Ernest in his book Contact Jugglingmost people will describe juggling as "throwing and catching things"; however, a juggler might describe the act as "a visually complex or physically challenging feat using one or more objects". The earliest record of juggling is suggested in a panel from the 15th to B.
Beni Hasan Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler of an unknown Egyptian prince, showing female dancers and acrobats throwing balls. Juggling in ancient China was an art performed by some warriors. One such warrior was Xiong Yiliao, whose juggling of nine Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler in front of troops on a battlefield reportedly caused the opposing troops to flee without fighting, resulting in a complete victory.
In Europe, juggling was an acceptable diversion until the decline of the Roman Empireafter which the activity fell into disgrace. Throughout the Middle Agesmost histories were written by religious clerics who frowned upon the type of performers who juggled, called gleemenIsänmaa Huumaa - Various - Nobody Wants Us Volume 2: Finland Part 2 them of base morals or even practicing witchcraft.
Jugglers in this era would only perform in marketplacesstreets, fairs, or drinking houses. They would perform short, humorous and bawdy acts and pass a hat or bag among the audience for tips. InPhilip Astley opened the first modern circus. A few years later, he employed jugglers to perform acts along with the horse and clown acts. Since then, jugglers have been associated with circuses. In the early 19th century,  troupes from Asia, such as the famous "Indian Jugglers"  referred to by William Hazlitt arrived to tour Britain, Europe and parts of America.
In the 19th century, variety and music hall theatres became more popular, and Johnny Cash - Greatest Hits Volume 1 were in demand to fill time between music acts, performing in front of the curtain while sets were changed.
Performers started specializing in juggling, separating it from other kinds of performance such as sword swallowing and magic. Rubber processing developed, and I Wonder - Blaze - 25 Years Later started using rubber balls. Previously, juggling balls were made from balls of twinestuffed leather bags, wooden spheres, or various metals.
Solid or inflatable rubber balls meant that bounce juggling was possible. Inflated rubber balls made ball spinning easier and more Kings Of Tomorrow - Dreams (Remixes) accessible. Soon in North America, vaudeville theatres employed jugglers, often hiring European performers. In the early to midth century, variety and vaudeville shows decreased in popularity due to competition from motion picture theatres, radio and televisionand juggling suffered as a result.
Music and comedy transferred very easily to radio, but juggling could not. In the early years of TV, when variety-style programming was popular, jugglers were often featured; but developing a new act for each new show, week after week, was more difficult for jugglers than other types of entertainers; comedians and musicians can pay others to write their material, but jugglers cannot get other people to learn new skills Dirty Little Angel - Martin J.
Andersen* - Six String Renegade their behalf. The International Jugglers' Associationfounded inbegan as an association for professional vaudeville jugglers, but restrictions for membership were eventually changed, and non-performers were permitted to join and attend the annual conventions.
The IJA continues to hold an annual convention each summer and runs a number of other programs dedicated to advance the art of juggling worldwide. World Juggling Day was created as an annual day of recognition for Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler hobby, with the intent to teach people how to juggle, to promote juggling and to get jugglers together and celebrate. It is held on the Saturday in June closest to the 17th, the founding date of the International Jugglers' Association.
Most cities and large towns now have juggling clubs. These are Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler based within, or connected to, universities Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler colleges. There are also community circus groups that teach young people and put on shows. The Juggling Edge  maintains a searchable database of most juggling clubs.
Since the s, a juggling culture has developed. The scene revolves around local clubs and organizations, special events, shows, magazines, web sites, internet forums and, possibly most importantly, juggling conventions. In recent years, there has also been a growing focus on juggling competitions. Juggling today has evolved and branched out to the point where it is synonymous with all prop manipulation. The wide variety of the juggling scene can be seen at any juggling convention.
Juggling conventions or festivals form the backbone of the juggling scene. The focus of most of these conventions is the main space used for open juggling. There will also be more formal workshops in which expert jugglers will work with small groups on specific skills and techniques. Most juggling conventions also include a main show open to the general publiccompetitions, and juggling games. The most footballs soccer balls juggled simultaneously is five and was achieved by Victor Rubilar Argentina at the Gallerian Shopping Centre in Stockholm, Sweden, on 4 November Professional jugglers perform in a number of different styles, which are not mutually exclusive.
These juggling styles have developed or been introduced over time with some becoming more popular at some times than others. Traditional circus-style juggling emphasises high levels of skill and sometimes large-scale props to enable the act to "fill" the circus ring. The juggling act may involve some comedy or other circus skills such as acrobatics, but the principal focus is the technical skill of the jugglers.
Costumes are usually colourful with sequins. Variations within this style include the traditions from Chinese and Russian circus. Comedy juggling acts vary greatly in their skill level, prop use and costuming. However, they all share the fact that the focus of the performance is comedic rather than a demonstration of technical juggling skill. Comedy juggling acts are most commonly seen in street performance, festivals and fairs. Gentleman juggling was popular in variety theatres and usually involves juggling some of the elements of a gentleman's attire, namely hats, canes, gloves, cigars, and other everyday items  such as plates and wine bottles.
French juggler Gaston Palmerfor example, gained a kind of notoriety for his comedic execution of gentleman juggling tricks. Jugglers perform themed acts, sometimes with specifically themed props and usually in themed costumes.
Examples include jesters, pirates, sports, Victorians and chefs. Jugglers commonly feature in circuses, with many performers having enjoyed a star billing. Circus jugglers come from many countries and include those from Russia and other Eastern European countries, China, Latin America and other European countries.
Variety theatres have a long history of including juggling acts on their billing. Vaudeville in the USA and Music halls in the UK regularly featured jugglers during the heyday of variety theatre in the first half of 20th century.
Variety theatre has declined in popularity but is still present in many European countries, particularly Germany. Television talent shows have introduced juggling acts to a wider audience with the newest examples being Britain's Got Talent and America's Got Talent.
In North America jugglers have often performed in casinosin places like Las Vegas. Germany and the United States have produced some of the greatest jugglers from the past 50 years, most notably Francis Brunn from Germany and Anthony Gatto from the United States. There is a wide variety of festivals and fairs where juggling acts are sometimes booked to perform.
Music, food and arts festivals have all booked professional performers. The festivals can range from very Rhythms Of The World - Badi Assad - Chameleon scale events such as Glastonbury Festival to small town or village fairs.
The acts may differ from year to year or a one-act may become a regular feature at these yearly events. Renaissance fairs in North America and medieval fairs in Europe often book professional jugglers.
Other historically themed events such as Victorian, maritime, and large-scale festivals of history such as the one organised by English Heritage regularly employ juggling acts as part of the event.
Street juggling acts usually perform what is known as a circle show and collect money at the end of the performance in a hat or bottle. Most Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler jugglers perform comedy Medianoche - Jorge Vidal - Por Las Veredas de Alsina Volumen No 3 acts.
Juggling has been performed in space despite the fact that the micro-gravity environment of orbit deprives the juggled objects of the essential ability to fall. This was accomplished initially by Don Williamsas part of a Houston scientist's "Toys In Space" project, with apples and oranges. Two person juggling passing multiple objects between them was Nasz Honor I Krew - North - Korona accomplished in space by Greg Chamitoff and Richard Garriott  while Garriott was visiting the International Space Station as a Spaceflight Participant in October Their juggling of objects while in orbit was featured in Apogee of Fearthe first science fiction movie made in space by Garriott and 'Zero-G Magic', a magic show also recorded in space by Chamitoff and Garriott at that time.
According to an Oxford University study, juggling improves cerebral connectivity performance. Mathematics has been used to understand juggling as juggling has been used to test mathematics. The number of possible patterns n digits long using b or fewer balls is b n and the average of the numbers in a siteswap pattern equal the number of balls required for the pattern.
Coupled oscillation and synchronization "the tendency of two limbs to move at the same frequency "  appear to be easier in all patterns and also required by certain patterns. For example, "the fountain pattern Juggling tricks and patterns can become very complex, and hence can be difficult to communicate to others. Therefore, notation systems have been developed for specifying patterns, as well as for discovering new patterns. Diagram-based notations are the clearest way to show juggling patterns on paper, but as they are based on images, their use is limited in text-based communication.
Ladder diagrams track the path of all the props through time, where the less complicated causal diagrams only track the props that are in the air, and assumes that a juggler has a prop in each hand. Numeric notation systems are more popular and standardized than diagram-based notations. They are used extensively in both a written form and in normal conversations among jugglers. Siteswap Blind Juggler - The Human Anomaly - The Blind Juggler by far the most common juggling notation.
Various heights of throw, considered to take specific "beats" of time to complete, are assigned a relative number. From those, a pattern is conveyed as a sequence of numbers, such as "3", "", or "".
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