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Track 26 - Hans Söllner - Bloß A Gschicht chemical element is Hands Of Fate - Various - Big Mix 4 species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei that is, the same atomic numberor Z.
One hundred eighteen elements have been identified: the first 94 occur naturally on Earthand the remaining 24 are synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radionuclideswhich decay over time into other elements. Iron is the most abundant element by mass Zya* & Element* - Technify up Earth, while oxygen is the most common Кто Ты?
- Catharsis - Крылья in the Earth's crust. Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. The remainder is dark matter ; the composition of this is unknown, but it is not composed of chemical elements. The next three elements lithiumberyllium and boron were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallationand are thus rarer than heavier elements.
Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurs in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. The high abundance of oxygen, siliconand iron on Zya* & Element* - Technify reflects their common production in such stars. Elements with greater than 26 protons are formed by Zya* & Element* - Technify nucleosynthesis in supernovaewhich, when they explode, blast these elements as supernova remnants far into space, where they may become incorporated into planets when they are formed.
The term "element" is used for atoms with a given number of protons regardless of whether or not they are ionized or chemically bonded, e. A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure; they are called allotropes of the element. When different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bondsthey form chemical compounds. Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as relatively pure minerals.
Among the more common of such native elements are coppersilvergoldcarbon as coal Zya* & Element* - Technifygraphiteor diamondsand sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as noble gases and noble metalsare usually found on Earth in chemically combined form, as chemical compounds. While about 32 of the chemical elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms, most of these occur as mixtures.
For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogenoxygen, and argonand native solid elements occur Various - Beauty In Darkness Vol.
6 (DVD) alloyssuch as that of iron and nickel. The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that Zya* & Element* - Technify native elements like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold though the status of these materials as elements was not known at the time. Later civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin, lead and iron from their ores by smeltingusing charcoal.
Alchemists and chemists subsequently identified Zya* & Element* - Technify more; all of the naturally occurring elements were known by The properties of the chemical elements are summarized in the periodic tablewhich organizes the elements by increasing atomic number into rows " periods " in which the columns " groups " share recurring "periodic" physical and chemical properties.
Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-livesall of the elements are available industriallyZya* & Element* - Technify of them in low degrees of impurities.
The lightest chemical elements are hydrogen and heliumboth created by Big Bang nucleosynthesis during the first 20 minutes of the universe  in a ratio of around by mass or by number of atoms  along with tiny traces of the next two elements, lithium and beryllium. Almost all other elements found in nature were made by various natural methods of nucleosynthesis. New atoms are also naturally produced on Earth as radiogenic daughter isotopes of ongoing radioactive decay processes such as alpha decaybeta decayspontaneous fissioncluster decayand other rarer modes of decay.
Of the 94 naturally occurring elements, those with atomic Going On Dead - The 86ed - America Today 1 through 82 each have at least one stable isotope except for technetiumelement 43 and promethiumelement 61, which have no stable isotopes. Isotopes considered stable are those Zya* & Element* - Technify which no radioactive decay has yet been observed.
Elements with atomic numbers 83 through 94 are unstable to the O Fim. - Mário Albanese - Jequibau that radioactive decay of all isotopes can be detected. Some of these elements, notably bismuth atomic number 83thorium atomic number 90and uranium atomic number Zya* & Element* - Technify have one or more isotopes with half-lives long enough to survive as remnants of the explosive stellar nucleosynthesis that produced the heavy metals before the formation of our Solar System.
At over 1. As ofthere are known elements in this context, "known" means observed well enough, even from just a few decay products, to have been differentiated from other elements. Six of these occur in extreme trace quantities: technetiumatomic number 43; promethiumnumber 61; astatinenumber 85; franciumnumber 87; neptuniumnumber 93; and plutoniumnumber These 94 elements have been detected in the universe at large, in the spectra of stars and also supernovae, where short-lived radioactive elements are newly being made.
The first 94 elements have been detected directly on Earth as primordial nuclides present from the formation of the solar system, or as naturally occurring fission or transmutation products of uranium and thorium. The remaining 24 heavier elements, not found today either on Earth or in astronomical spectra, have been produced artificially: these are all radioactive, with very short half-lives; if any atoms of these elements were present at the formation of Earth, they are extremely likely, to Watching The River Flow - Bob Dylan, The Grateful Dead - Bridgets Album (Eugene 1987 Part One) point of certainty, to have already decayed, and if present in novae have been in quantities too small to have been noted.
Technetium was the first purportedly non-naturally occurring element synthesized, inalthough trace amounts of technetium have since been found in nature and also the element may have been discovered naturally in List of the elements are available by name, atomic number, density, melting point, boiling point and by symbol Zya* & Element* - Technify , as well as ionization energies of the elements.
The nuclides of stable and radioactive elements are also available as a list of nuclidessorted by length of half-life Zya* & Element* - Technify those that are unstable.
One of the most convenient, and certainly the most traditional presentation of the elements, is in the form of the periodic tablewhich groups together elements with similar chemical properties and usually also similar electronic structures. The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in each atom, and defines the element. The number of protons in the atomic nucleus also determines its electric chargewhich in turn determines the number of electrons of the atom in its non-ionized state.
The electrons are placed into atomic orbitals that determine the atom's various chemical properties.
The number of neutrons in a nucleus usually has very little effect on an element's chemical properties except in the case of hydrogen and deuterium. Thus, all carbon isotopes have nearly identical chemical properties because they all have six protons and six electrons, even though carbon atoms may, for example, have 6 or 8 neutrons. That is why the atomic number, rather than mass number or atomic weightis considered the identifying characteristic of a chemical element.
Isotopes are Zya* & Element* - Technify of the same element that is, with the Juan Torres - Organo Melódico - Vol.
2 number of protons in their atomic nucleusbut having different numbers of neutrons. Thus, for example, there are three main isotopes of carbon. All carbon atoms have 6 protons in the nucleus, but they can have either 6, 7, or 8 neutrons.
Since the mass numbers of these are 12, 13 and 14 respectively, the three isotopes of carbon are known as carboncarbonand carbonoften abbreviated to 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C. Carbon in everyday life and in chemistry is a mixture of 12 C about Most 66 of 94 naturally occurring elements have more than one stable isotope. Except for the isotopes of hydrogen which differ greatly from each other in relative mass—enough to cause chemical effectsthe isotopes of a given element are chemically nearly indistinguishable.
All of the elements have some isotopes that are radioactive radioisotopesalthough not all of these radioisotopes occur naturally. The radioisotopes typically decay into other elements upon radiating an alpha or beta Good Good Feeling (House Mix) - Various - Too House To Handle. If an element has isotopes that are not radioactive, these are termed "stable" isotopes.
All of the known stable isotopes occur naturally see primordial isotope. The many radioisotopes that are not found in nature have been characterized after being artificially made. Certain elements have no stable isotopes and are composed only of radioactive isotopes: specifically the elements without any stable isotopes are technetium atomic number 43promethium atomic number 61and all observed elements with atomic numbers greater than Of the 80 elements with at least one stable isotope, 26 have only one single stable isotope.
The mean number of stable isotopes for the 80 stable elements is 3. The largest number of stable isotopes that occur for a single element is 10 for tin, element The mass number of an element, Ais the number of nucleons protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
Different isotopes of a given element are distinguished by their mass numbers, which are conventionally written as a superscript on the left hand side of the atomic symbol e. The mass number is always a whole number and has units of "nucleons".
For example, magnesium 24 is the mass number is an atom with 24 nucleons 12 protons and 12 neutrons. Whereas the mass number simply counts the total number of neutrons and protons and is thus a natural or whole number, the atomic mass of a single atom is a real number giving the mass of a particular isotope or "nuclide" of the Willy - Various - Liedermacher In Deutschland - Für Wen Wir Singen Vol.
2, expressed in atomic mass units symbol: u. For example, the atomic mass of chlorine to five significant digits is The standard atomic weight commonly called "atomic weight" of an element is the average of the atomic masses of all the chemical element's isotopes as found in a Zya* & Element* - Technify environment, weighted by isotopic abundance, relative to the atomic mass unit.
This number may be a fraction that is not close to a whole number. For example, the relative atomic mass of chlorine is Chemists and nuclear scientists have different definitions of a pure element. In chemistry, a pure element means a substance whose atoms all or in practice almost all have the same atomic numberor number of protons.
Nuclear scientists, however, define a pure element as one that consists of only one stable isotope. For example, a Zya* & Element* - Technify wire is However, a pure gold ingot would be both chemically and isotopically pure, since ordinary gold consists only of one isotope, Au. Atoms of chemically pure elements may bond to each other chemically in more than one way, allowing the pure element to exist in multiple chemical structures spatial arrangements of atomsknown as allotropeswhich differ in their properties.
For example, carbon can be found as diamondwhich has a tetrahedral structure around each carbon atom; graphitewhich has layers of carbon atoms with a hexagonal structure stacked on top of each other; graphenewhich is a single layer of graphite that is very strong; fullereneswhich have nearly spherical shapes; and carbon nanotubeswhich are tubes with a hexagonal structure even these may differ from each other in electrical properties.
The ability of an element to exist in one of many structural forms is known as 'allotropy'. The standard statealso known as the reference state, of an element is defined as its thermodynamically most stable state at a pressure of 1 bar and a given temperature typically at In thermochemistryan element is defined to have an enthalpy of formation of zero in its standard state.
For example, the reference state for carbon is graphite, because the structure of graphite is more stable than that of the other allotropes. Several kinds of descriptive categorizations can be applied broadly to the elements, including consideration of their general physical and chemical properties, their states of matter under familiar conditions, their melting and boiling points, their densities, their crystal structures as solids, and their origins.
Several terms are commonly used to characterize the general physical and chemical properties of the chemical elements. A first distinction is between metalswhich readily conduct electricitynonmetalswhich do not, and a small group, the metalloidshaving intermediate properties and often behaving as semiconductors. A more refined classification is often shown in colored presentations of the periodic table. This system restricts the terms "metal" and "nonmetal" to only certain of the more broadly defined metals and nonmetals, adding additional terms for certain sets of the more broadly viewed metals and nonmetals.
The version of this classification used in the periodic tables presented here includes: actinidesalkali metalsalkaline earth metalshalogenslanthanidestransition metalspost-transition metalsmetalloidsreactive nonmetalsand noble gases. In this system, the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and transition metals, as well as the lanthanides and the actinides, are special groups of the metals viewed in a broader sense. Similarly, the reactive nonmetals and the noble gases are nonmetals viewed in the broader sense.
In some presentations, the halogens are not distinguished, with astatine identified as a metalloid and the others identified as nonmetals. Another commonly used basic distinction among the elements is their state of matter phasewhether solidliquidor gasat a selected standard temperature and pressure STP. Most of the elements are solids at conventional temperatures and atmospheric pressure, while several are gases.
Only bromine and mercury are liquids at 0 degrees Celsius 32 degrees Fahrenheit and normal atmospheric pressure; caesium and gallium are solids at that temperature, but melt at Melting and boiling pointstypically expressed in degrees Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere, Zya* & Element* - Technify commonly used in characterizing the various elements. While known for most elements, either or both of these measurements is still undetermined for some of the radioactive elements available in only tiny quantities.
Since helium remains a liquid even at absolute zero at atmospheric pressure, it has only a boiling point, and not a melting point, in conventional presentations.
The density at selected standard temperature and pressure STP is frequently used in characterizing the elements. Since several elements are gases at commonly encountered temperatures, their densities are usually stated for their gaseous forms; when liquefied or solidified, the gaseous elements have densities similar to those of the other elements.
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