Label: Columbia - GL 507 • Format: Vinyl LP, Compilation • Country: US • Genre: Jazz •
Leon Bismark " Bix " Beiderbecke March 10, — August 6, was an American jazz cornetistpianistand composer. Beiderbecke was one of the most influential jazz soloists of the s, a cornet player noted for an inventive lyrical approach and purity of tone.
His solos on seminal recordings such as "Singin' the Blues" and " I'm Coming, Virginia " both demonstrate a gift for extended improvisation that heralded the jazz ballad style, in which jazz solos are an integral part of the composition. Moreover, his use of extended chords and an ability to improvise freely along harmonic as well as melodic lines are echoed in post-WWII developments in jazz. His piano style reflects both jazz and classical mainly impressionist influences.
All five of his piano compositions were published by Robbins Music during his lifetime. A native of DavenportIowa, Beiderbecke taught himself to play the cornet largely by earleading him to adopt a non-standard fingering technique that informed his unique style. He first recorded with Midwestern jazz ensemble The Wolverines  inafter which he played briefly for the Detroit-based Jean Goldkette Orchestra before joining Frankie "Tram" Trumbauer for an extended engagement at the Arcadia Ballroom in St.
Louis, also under the auspices of Goldkette's organisation. He made his greatest recordings in The Goldkette band folded in September and, after briefly joining bass saxophone player Adrian Rollini 's band in New York, Trumbauer and Beiderbecke joined America's most popular dance band: Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra. Beiderbecke's most influential recordings date from his time with Goldkette and Whiteman, although he also recorded under his own name and that of Trumbauer's.
The Whiteman period marked a precipitous decline in his health due to his increasing use of alcohol. Treatment for alcoholism in rehabilitation centers, with the support of Whiteman and the Beiderbecke family, failed to stop his decline. He left the Whiteman band in and in the summer of he died in his Sunnyside, QueensNew York apartment at the age of His death, in turn, gave rise to one of the original legends of jazz. His life has often been portrayed as that of a jazz musician who had to compromise his Liffe As A Skywalker - Inside The Amber Room - Between Swan And Arrow for the sake of commercialism.
Beiderbecke remains the subject of scholarly controversy regarding his full name, the cause of his death and the importance of his contributions to jazz. Burnie Beiderbecke claimed that the boy was named Leon Bix  and biographers have reproduced birth certificates that agree. In a letter to his mother when he was nine years old, Beiderbecke signed off, "frome your Leon Bix Beiderbecke not Bismark Remeber [ sic ]".
The son of German immigrants, Beiderbecke's father was a well-to-do coal and lumber merchant named after the Iron Chancellor of his native Germany.
Beiderbecke's mother was the daughter of a Mississippi riverboat captain. She played the organ at Davenport's First Presbyterian Church  and encouraged young Beiderbecke's interest in the piano. Beiderbecke was the youngest of three children. His brother, Burnie, was Bambolina - Sottosopra inand his sister, Mary Louise, in He began playing piano at age two or three.
Five years later, he was the subject of an admiring article in the Davenport Daily Democrat that proclaimed, "Seven-year-old boy musical wonder! Little Bickie Beiderbecke plays any selection he hears.
Burnie recalled that he stopped coming home for supper to hurry to the riverfront, slip aboard an excursion boat, and play the calliope.
A friend remembered that Beiderbecke showed little interest in the Saturday matinees they attended, but as soon as the lights came on he rushed home to duplicate the melodies the accompanist had ST 4 - Iannis Xenakis - Atrées / Morsima-Amorsima / ST 4 / Nomos Alpha. He also listened to jazz from the riverboats that docked in downtown Davenport.
Louis Armstrong and the drummer Baby Dodds claimed to have met Beiderbecke when their excursion boat stopped in Davenport. Beiderbecke attended Davenport High School from to During this time, he sat in and played professionally with various bands, including those of Wilbur HatchFloyd Bean, and Carlisle Evans. The group was hired for a gig in Decemberbut a complaint was lodged with the American Federation of Musicians, Local 67, that the boys did not have union cards.
In an audition before a union executive, Beiderbecke was forced to sight read and failed. He did not earn his card. On April 22, Souvenir (Of China) - Jean Michel Jarre* - In Concert Houston / Lyon, a month after he turned 18, Beiderbecke was arrested by two Davenport police officers on an accusation that he had taken a five-year-old girl named Sarah Ivens into a neighbor's garage and committed a lewd and lascivious act with her—a statutory felony in Iowa.
It is not clear from the official documents if Sarah herself had identified Beiderbecke, but the two young men had told her father, when he questioned them a day after the alleged incident, that they had seen Beiderbecke take the girl into the garage. The surviving official documents concerning the arrest and its aftermath - including two police entries and Preston Ivens' grand jury testimony — were first made available in by Professor Albert Haim on the Bixography website.
Beiderbecke apparently felt that a boarding school would provide their son with both the faculty attention and discipline required to improve his academic performance,  necessitated by the fact that Goose Pimples - Bix Beiderbecke - The Bix Beiderbecke Story / Volume 1 - Bix And His Gang had failed most courses at High School, remaining a junior in despite turning 18 in March of that year.
His interests, however, remained limited to music and sports. In pursuit of the former, Beiderbecke often visited Chicago to listen to jazz bands at night clubs and speakeasiesincluding the infamous Friar's Innwhere he sometimes sat in with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings. Beiderbecke often failed to return to his dormitory before curfew, and sometimes stayed off-campus Goose Pimples - Bix Beiderbecke - The Bix Beiderbecke Story / Volume 1 - Bix And His Gang next day.
In the early morning hours of May 20,he was caught on the fire escape to his dormitory, attempting to climb back into his room. The faculty voted to expel him the next day,  due both to his academic failings and his extracurricular activities, which included drinking. The headmaster informed Beiderbecke's parents by letter that following his expulsion school officials confirmed that Beiderbecke "was drinking himself and was responsible, in part at least, in having liquor brought into the School.
He returned to Davenport briefly in the summer ofthen moved to Chicago to join the Cascades Band, working that summer on Lake Michigan excursion boats. He gigged around Chicago until the fall ofSundowners - Meek Is Murder - Algorithms times returning to Davenport to work for his father.
Beiderbecke joined the Wolverine Orchestra late inand the seven-man group first played a speakeasy called the Stockton Club near Hamilton, Ohio. Specializing in hot jazz and recoiling from so-called sweet music, the band took its name from one of its most frequent numbers, Jelly Roll Morton 's "Wolverine Blues.
Lane's piano suites and orchestral arrangements were self-consciously American whilst also having French Impressionist allusions, and influenced Beiderbecke's style, especially on " In a Mist. On February 18,the Wolverines made their first recordings. Beiderbecke's solo on the latter heralded something new and significant in jazz, according to biographers Richard M.
Sudhalter and Philip R. Both qualities—complementary or "correlated" phrasing and cultivation of the vocal, "singing" middle-range of the Goose Pimples - Bix Beiderbecke - The Bix Beiderbecke Story / Volume 1 - Bix And His Gang on display in Bix's "Jazz Me Blues" solo, along with an already discernible inclination for unusual accidentals and inner chordal voices. It is a pioneer record, introducing a musician of great originality with a pace-setting band.
And it astonished even the Wolverines themselves. The titles revealed a strong and well-formed cornet talent. His lip had strengthened from earlier, more tentative years; on nine of the Wolverines' recorded titles he proceeds commandingly from lead to opening solo without any need for a respite from playing. In some respects, Beiderbecke's playing was sui generis but he nevertheless listened to, and learned from, the music around him:: from the Dixieland jazz as exemplified by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band; to the hotter Chicago style of the New Orleans Rhythm Kings and the south-side bands of Joe "King Oliver" and other black artists; to the classical compositions of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel.
Louis Armstrong also provided a source of inspiration, though Beiderbecke's style was very different from that of Louis Armstrong, according to The Oxford Companion to Jazz:. Where Armstrong's playing was bravura, Ach Herr, Mich Armen Sünder - Franz Tunder, Nicolaus Bruhns*, Dietrich Buxtehude* - Lübeck, Eine Abe optimistic, and openly emotional, Beiderbecke's conveyed a range of intellectual alternatives.
Where Armstrong, at the head of an ensemble, played it hard, straight, and true, Beiderbecke, like a shadowboxer, invented his own way of phrasing "around the lead.
Armstrong tended to accentuate showmanship and virtuosity, whereas Beiderbecke emphasized melody, even when improvising, and rarely strayed into the upper reaches of the register. Beiderbecke apparently spent time with them, but it is difficult to discern the degree to which Hardy's style influenced Beiderbecke's—especially since there Religious Cancer - Nailbomb - Point Blank no publicly-known recording of a Hardy performance.
Beiderbecke certainly found a kindred musical spirit in Hoagy Carmichael, whose amusingly unconventional personality he also appreciated. The two became firm friends. A law student and aspiring pianist and songwriter, Carmichael invited the Wolverines to play at the Bloomington campus of Indiana University in the Spring of On May 6,the Wolverines recorded a tune Carmichael had written especially for Beiderbecke and his colleagues: " Riverboat Shuffle ".
During an engagement at the Cinderella Ballroom in New York in September—OctoberBix tendered his resignation with the Wolverines,  leaving to join Jean Goldkette and his Orchestra in Detroit, but Beiderbecke's tenure with the band proved to be short-lived. Goldkette recorded for the Victor Talking Machine Companywhose musical director, Eddie King, objected to Beiderbecke's modernistic style of jazz playing.
After a few weeks, Beiderbecke and Goldkette agreed to part company, but to keep in touch, with Goldkette advising Beiderbecke to brush up on his reading and learn more about music. On January 26,they set two tunes to wax: "Toddlin' Blues", another number by LaRocca and Goose Pimples - Bix Beiderbecke - The Bix Beiderbecke Story / Volume 1 - Bix And His Gang , and Beiderbecke's own composition, " Davenport Blues ", which subsequently became a classic jazz number, recorded by musicians ranging from Bunny Berigan to Ry Cooder and Geoff Muldaur.
His stint in academia was even briefer than his time in Detroit, however. When he attempted to pack his course schedule with music, his guidance counselor forced him instead to take religion, ethics, physical education, and military training.
It was an institutional blunder that Benny Green described as being, in retrospect, "comical," "fatuous," and "a parody. The band was run by Goldkette, and it put Beiderbecke in touch with another musician he had met before: the C-melody saxophone player Frankie Trumbauer.
The two hit it off, both personally and musically, despite Trumbauer having been warned by other musicians: "Look out, he's trouble. He drinks and you'll have a hard time handling him. Louis, Beiderbecke joined him.
There he also played alongside the clarinetist Pee Wee Russellwho praised Beiderbecke's ability to drive the band.
In the spring ofBix and Trumbauer joined Goldkette's main dance band, splitting the year between playing a Summer season at a Goldkette-owned resort on Lake Hudson, Indiana and headlining at Detroit's Graystone Ballroomwhich was also owned by Goldkette.
The Roseland promoted a "Battle of the Bands" in the local press and, on October 12, after a night of furious playing, Goldkette's men were declared the winners. He called the experience "most humiliating".
Although the Goldkette Orchestra recorded numerous sides for Victor during this period, none of them showcases Beiderbecke's most famous solos. The band found itself subjected to the commercial considerations of the popular music sector that Victor deliberately targeted the band's recordings at. The few exceptions to the policy include "My Pretty Girl" and "Clementine", the latter being one of the band's final recordings and its effective swan song.
In addition to these commercial sessions with Goldkette, Beiderbecke and Trumbauer also recorded under their own names for the OKeh label; Bix waxed some of his best solos as a member of Trumbauer's recording band, starting with "Clarinet Marmalade" and "Singin' the Blues", recorded on February 4, Beiderbecke switched between cornet and piano on that number, and then in September played only piano Chompin At The Bit - Jimmyjohnnyjoe - Jimmyjohnnyjoe his recording of " In A Mist ".
This was perhaps the most fruitful year of his short career. Under financial pressure, Goldkette folded his premier band in September in Goose Pimples - Bix Beiderbecke - The Bix Beiderbecke Story / Volume 1 - Bix And His Gang York.
The band also included guitarist Eddie Lang and violinist Joe Venuti, who had often recorded on a freelance basis with the Goldkette Orchestra. Another newcomer was Sylvester Aholaa schooled trumpeter who could play improvised jazz solos and read complex scores.
When Ahola introduced himself, Beiderbecke famously stated "Hell, I'm only a musical degenerate". They joined his orchestra in Indianapolis on October The Paul Whiteman Orchestra was the most popular and highest paid dance band of the day. In spite of Whiteman's appellation "The King of Jazz", his band was not a jazz ensemble as such, but a popular music outfit that drew from both Monumental Part I - Hundredth - Let Go and classical music repertoires, according to the demands of its record-buying and concert-going audience.
Whiteman was large physically and important culturally —"a man flabby, virile, quick, coarse, untidy and sleek, with a hard core of shrewdness in an envelope of sentimentalism", according to a New Yorker profile.
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