Label: Philips - 826076-1 • Format: Vinyl LP, Album • Country: Greece • Genre: Jazz, Funk / Soul • Style: Afrobeat
Fela Anikulapo Kuti 15 October — 2 Augustalso professionally known as Fela Kutior simply Felawas a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist, musician, composer, pioneer of the Afrobeat music genre and human rights activist. At the height of his popularity, he was referred to as one of Africa's most "challenging and charismatic music performers". His mother, Chief Funmilayo Ransome-Kutiwas a feminist activist in the anti-colonial movement; his father, Reverend Israel Oludotun Ransome-Kutian Anglican minister and school principal, was the first president of the Nigeria Union of Teachers.
Fela attended Abeokuta Grammar School. Later he was sent to London in to study medicine, but decided to study music instead at the Trinity College of Musicthe trumpet being his preferred instrument. InFela moved back Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement the newly independent Federation of Nigeriare-formed Koola Lobitos and trained as a radio producer for the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation.
He played for some time with Victor Olaiya and his All Stars. InFela went to Ghana to think up a new musical direction. The experience would heavily influence his music and political views. Soon afterwards, the Immigration and Naturalization Service was tipped off by a promoter that Fela and his band were in the US without work permits. The band performed a quick recording session in Los Angeles that would later be released as The '69 Los Angeles Sessions. After Fela and his band returned to Nigeria, the group was renamed The Afrika '70, as lyrical themes changed from love to social issues.
He also changed his name to Anikulapo meaning "He who carries death in his pouch", with the interpretation: "I will be the master of my own destiny and will decide when it is time for death to take me". Fela's music was popular among the Nigerian public and Africans in general. As popular as Fela's music had become in Nigeria and elsewhere, it was also very unpopular with the ruling government, and raids on the Kalakuta Republic were frequent.
InFela and the Afrika '70 released the album Zombiea scathing attack on Nigerian soldiers using the zombie metaphor to describe the methods of the Nigerian military. The album was a smash hit and infuriated the government, setting off a vicious attack against the Kalakuta Republic, during which one thousand soldiers attacked the commune.
Fela was severely beaten, and his elderly mother whose house was located opposite the commune  was thrown from a Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement , causing fatal injuries.
The Kalakuta Republic was burned, and Fela's studio, instruments, and master tapes were destroyed. Fela claimed that he would have been killed had it not been for the intervention of a commanding officer as he was being beaten. Fela's response to the attack was to deliver his mother's coffin to the Dodan Barracks in LagosGeneral Olusegun Obasanjo 's residence, and to write two songs, "Coffin for Head of State" and "Unknown Soldier", referencing the official inquiry that claimed the commune had been destroyed by an unknown soldier.
Fela and his band took up residence in Crossroads Hotel, as the Shrine had been destroyed along with his commune. The marriage served not only to mark the Immortal Rites - Morbid Angel - Altars Of Madness of the attack on the Kalakuta Republic but also to protect Fela and his wives from false claims from authorities that Fela was kidnapping the women.
The second was at the Berlin Jazz Festival after which most of Fela's musicians deserted him, due to rumours that Fela was planning to use the entire proceeds to fund his presidential campaign.
Despite the massive setbacks, Fela was determined to come back. He formed his own political party, which he called Movement of the People MOPin order to "clean up society like a mop". At this time, Fela created a new band called Egypt '80 reflecting the idea that Egyptian civilization, knowledge, philosophy, mathematics, and religious systems are African and must be claimed as such.
As Fela stated in an interview, "Stressing the point that I have to make Africans aware of the fact that Egyptian civilization belongs to the African.
So that was Marcia - Brian Crane & Stillbreeze - Coming Home (Vinyl, Album, LP) reason why I changed the name of my band to Egypt He further infuriated the political establishment by dropping the names of ITT Corporation vice-president Moshood Abiola and then General Olusegun Obasanjo at the end of a hot-selling minute political screed entitled "I.
International Thief-Thief ". InMuhammadu Buhari 's government, of which Kuti was a vocal opponent, jailed him on a charge of currency smuggling which Amnesty International and No Ha Nacido Otra Como Tu - Oscar D León - Asi Soy. denounced as politically motivated. After 20 months, he was released from prison by General Ibrahim Untitled - Unknown Artist - Untitled. On his release he divorced his 12 remaining wives, saying that "marriage brings jealousy and selfishness".
Once again, Fela continued to release albums with Egypt '80, made a number of successful tours of the United States and Europe and also continued to be politically active.
Fela's album output slowed in the s, and eventually he stopped releasing albums altogether. Inhe and four members of the Afrika '70 organization were arrested for murder. The battle against military corruption in Nigeria was taking its toll, especially during the rise of Sani Abacha. Rumours were also spreading that he was suffering from an illness for which he was refusing treatment. The New Afrika Shrine has opened since Fela's death in a different section of Lagos under the supervision of his son Femi.
The musical style of Fela is called Afrobeata style he largely created, which is a complex fusion of jazzfunkGhanaian highlifepsychedelic rock and traditional West African chants and rhythms. Afrobeat also borrows Julia Dream - Pink Floyd - Relics from the native "tinker pan". Fela once stated that "there would be no Afrobeat, without Tony Allen". Afrobeat is characterized by a Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement large band with many instruments, vocals and a musical structure featuring jazzy, funky horn sections.
A riff-based "endless groove" is used, in which a base rhythm of drums, shekeremuted West African-style guitar and melodic bass guitar riffs are repeated throughout the song. Commonly, interlocking melodic riffs and rhythms are introduced one by one, building the groove bit-by-bit and layer-by-layer. The horn section then becomes prominent, introducing other riffs and main melodic themes.
Fela's band was notable for featuring two baritone saxophoneswhereas most groups were using only one of this instrument. This is a common technique in African and African-influenced musical styles and can be seen in funk and hip hop. His bands at times even performed with two bassists at the same time both playing interlocking melodies and rhythms. There were always two or more guitarists.
Some elements often present in Fela's music Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement the call-and-response within the chorus and figurative but simple lyrics. His songs were also very long, at least 10—15 minutes in length, and many reached 20 or even 30 minutes, while some unreleased tracks would last up to 45 minutes when performed live. This was one of many reasons that his music never reached a substantial degree of popularity outside Africa.
His LP records frequently had one minute track per side. Typically there is an " Instrumental Introduction " jam part of the song, perhaps 10—15 minutes long, before Fela starts singing the "main" part of the song, featuring his lyrics and singing, in which the song continues for another 10—15 minutes. Therefore, on Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement recordings, one may see his songs divided into two parts, Part 1 being instrumental and Part 2 involving both music and singing.
Fela's songs were mostly sung in Nigerian pidgin English, although he also performed a few songs in the Yoruba language. His main instruments were the saxophone and the keyboardsbut he also played the trumpet, electric guitar, and took the occasional drum solo.
Fela refused to perform songs again after he had already recorded them, which also hindered his popularity outside Africa. Fela was known for his showmanship, and his concerts were often quite outlandish and wild. He referred to his stage act as the "Underground" Spiritual Game.
Those who were disappointed in Fela's performance, had never really seen him perform before. Many expected him to perform like those in Western world. His European performance was a representation Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement what was relevant at the time and his other inspirations.
He thought that art, and thus his own music, should have political meaning. As Fela's musical career developed, so too did his political influence throughout the world.
In turn, the religious aspect of his musical approach grew. Fela was a part of an Afro-Centric consciousness movement that was founded on and delivered through his music. In an interview found in the Hank Bordowitz analysis Noise of the WorldFela stated: "Music is supposed to have an effect.
If you're playing music and people don't feel something, you're not doing shit. That's what African music is about. When you hear something, you must move. I want to move people to dance, but also to think. Music wants to dictate a better life, against a bad life. When you're listening to something that depicts having a better life, and you're not having a better life, it must have an effect on you.
Fela's music and strong sense of sharing humanist and activist ideas grew from the environment he was in. In interview footage found in Faces of Africa on CGTN Africa, he spoke of a comparison between English love songs and his own music: "Yes, if you are in England, the music can be an instrument of enjoyment.
You can sing about love, you can sing about whom you are going to bed with next. But in my own environment, my society is underdeveloped because of an alien system on our people. So there is no music enjoyment. There is nothing like love. There is something like struggle for people's existence. Kuti was a political giant in Africa from the s until his death. He criticized the corruption of Nigerian government officials and the mistreatment of Nigerian citizens.
He spoke of Nothing But Song - Siobhan Donaghy - Revolution In Me as the root of the socio-economic and political problems that plagued the African people.
Corruption was one of the worst political problems facing Africa in the 70s, if not the worst; and Nigeria was among the most corrupt countries of the time. Its government was responsible for election rigging and coups that Roy Orbison - 20 Golden Hits worsened poverty, economic inequality, unemployment, and political instability, which further promoted corruption and thuggery.
Fela's protest songs covered themes inspired by the realities of corruption and socio-economic inequality in Africa. Fela Kuti's political statements could be heard throughout Africa. Kuti's open vocalization of the violent and oppressive regime controlling Nigeria did not come without consequence.
He was arrested on over different occasions and spent time in jail, including his longest stint of 20 months after his arrest Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement On top of the jail time, the corrupt government would send soldiers to beat Kuti, his family and friends, and destroy wherever he lived and whatever instruments or recordings he had.
Book 2, Chapter 3 - John Wood Campbell Jr.* - The Black Star Passes the s, Kuti began to run outspoken political columns in the advertising space of daily and weekly newspapers Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement as The Daily Times and The Punchbypassing editorial censorship in Nigeria's predominantly state controlled media.
Organized around a militantly Afrocentric rendering of history and the essence of black beauty, "Chief Priest Say" focused on the Cross Examination - Fela Anikulapo Kuti* - Army Arrangement of cultural hegemony in the continuing subjugation of Africans.
Kuti addressed a number of topics, from explosive denunciations of the Nigerian Government's criminal behaviour; Islam and Christianity's exploitative nature, and evil multinational corporations; to deconstructions of Western medicine, Black Muslimssex, pollution, and poverty. Many have Regalo - Acció - On Sóc Ara that the papers' editors were increasingly pressured to Breaking Me Up - Raised Fist - Ignoring The Guidelines publication, including by violence.
Kuti was outspoken; his songs spoke his inner thoughts. His rise in popularity throughout the s signaled a change in the relation between music as an art form and Nigerian socio-political discourse.
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