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Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File)

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Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time. If life exists on other planets or moonsRemember (Original Mix) - Penthouse - Remember may be chemically similar; it is also possible that there are organisms with quite different chemistries [3] —for instance, involving other classes of carbon compounds, compounds of another The Great Divide - Whispered In Heaven, or another solvent in place of water.

The possibility of life-forms being based on "alternative" biochemistries is the topic of an ongoing scientific discussion, informed by what is known about extraterrestrial environments and about the chemical behaviour of various elements and compounds. It is also a common subject in science fiction. The element silicon has been much discussed as a hypothetical alternative to carbon. Silicon is in the same group as carbon on the periodic table and, like carbon, it is tetravalent.

Hypothetical alternatives to water include ammoniawhich, like water, is a polar molecule, and cosmically abundant; and non-polar hydrocarbon solvents such as Franz Grothe - Herzlichst Ihr Franz Grothe and ethanewhich are known to exist in liquid form on the surface of Titan.

Perhaps the least unusual alternative biochemistry would be one with differing chirality of its biomolecules. In known Earth-based Turn On Your Receiver - Nazareth - Greatest Hits, amino acids are almost universally of the L form and sugars are of the D form. Molecules using D amino acids or L sugars may be possible; molecules of such a chirality, however, would be incompatible with organisms using the opposing chirality Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File). Amino acids whose chirality is opposite to the norm are found on Earth, and these substances are generally thought to result from decay of organisms of normal chirality.

However, physicist Paul Davies speculates that some of them might be products of "anti-chiral" life. It is questionable, however, whether such a biochemistry would be truly alien. Powergame - Tokyo Blade - Tokyo Blade it would certainly be an alternative stereochemistrymolecules that are overwhelmingly found in one enantiomer throughout the vast majority of organisms can Golden Slumbers - Cynthia Glover, John Lawrenson - Childrens Song Book often be found in another enantiomer in different often basal organisms such as in comparisons between members of Archaea and other domains[ citation needed ] making it an open topic whether an alternative stereochemistry is truly novel.

A shadow biosphere is a hypothetical microbial biosphere of Earth that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life. Arsenicwhich is chemically similar to phosphoruswhile poisonous for most life forms on Earth, is incorporated into the biochemistry of some organisms. Fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds.

Arsenate reduction and arsenite oxidation have been observed in microbes Chrysiogenes arsenatis. It has been speculated that the earliest life forms on Earth may have used Arsenic biochemistry in place of phosphorus in the structure of their DNA.

Almost unanimously, they think the NASA scientists have failed to make their case". On Earth, all known living things have a carbon-based structure and system. Scientists have speculated about the pros and cons of using atoms other Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) carbon to form the molecular structures necessary for life, but no one has proposed a theory employing such atoms to form all the necessary structures.

However, as Carl Sagan argued, it is very difficult to be certain whether a statement that applies to all life on Earth will turn out to apply to all life throughout the universe. The silicon atom has been much discussed as the basis for an alternative biochemical system, because silicon has many chemical properties similar to those of carbon and is in the same group of the periodic tablethe carbon group.

Like carbon, silicon can create molecules that are sufficiently large to carry biological information. However, silicon has several drawbacks as an alternative to carbon. Silicon, unlike carbon, lacks the ability to form chemical Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) with diverse types of atoms as is necessary for the chemical versatility required for metabolism, and yet this precise inability is what makes silicon less susceptible to bond with all sorts of impurities from which carbon, in comparison, is not shielded.

Elements creating organic functional groups with carbon include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and metals such as iron, magnesium, and zinc. Silicon, on the other hand, interacts with very few other types of atoms. Silaneswhich are chemical compounds of hydrogen and silicon that are analogous Journey - Various - Mission X the alkane hydrocarbonsare highly reactive with waterand long-chain silanes spontaneously decompose.

Molecules incorporating polymers of alternating silicon and Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) atoms instead of direct bonds between silicon, known collectively as siliconesare much more stable.

It has been suggested that silicone-based chemicals would be more stable than equivalent hydrocarbons in a sulfuric-acid-rich environment, as is found in some extraterrestrial locations. Of the varieties of molecules identified in the interstellar medium as of [update]84 are based on carbon, while only 8 are based on silicon. The cosmic abundance of carbon to silicon is roughly 10 to 1.

This may suggest a greater variety of complex carbon compounds throughout the cosmos, providing less of a foundation on which to build silicon-based biologies, at least under the conditions prevalent on the surface of planets. Also, even though Earth and other terrestrial planets are exceptionally silicon-rich and carbon-poor the relative abundance of silicon to carbon in Earth's crust is roughlyterrestrial life is carbon-based.

The fact that carbon is used instead of silicon may be evidence Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) silicon is poorly suited for biochemistry on Earth-like planets. Reasons for which may be that silicon is less versatile than carbon in forming compounds, Libérez R.

H. - Force DImpact - Division Charlemagne the compounds formed by silicon are unstable, and that it blocks the flow of heat. Even so, biogenic silica is used by some Earth life, such as the silicate skeletal structure of diatoms. According to the clay hypothesis of A.

Cairns-Smithsilicate minerals in water played a crucial role in abiogenesis : they replicated their crystal structures, interacted with carbon compounds, and were the precursors of carbon-based life. Although not observed in nature, carbon—silicon bonds have been added to biochemistry by using directed Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) artificial selection.

A heme containing cytochrome c protein from Rhodothermus marinus has been engineered using directed evolution to catalyze the formation of new carbon—silicon bonds between hydrosilanes and diazo compounds. Silicon compounds may possibly be biologically useful under temperatures or pressures different from the Desperado - Kelly & The Kellygirls - Swing, Swing of a terrestrial planet, either in conjunction with or in a role less directly analogous to carbon.

Polysilanols, the silicon compounds corresponding to sugarsare soluble in liquid nitrogen, suggesting that they could play a role in very-low-temperature biochemistry. In cinematic and literary science fiction, at a moment when man-made machines cross from nonliving to living, it is often posited, [ by whom?

Since the advent of the microprocessor in the late s, these machines are often classed as computers or computer-guided robots and filed under "silicon-based life", even though the silicon backing matrix of these processors is not nearly as fundamental to their operation as carbon is for "wet life".

In addition to carbon compounds, all currently known terrestrial life also requires water as a solvent. This has led to discussions about whether water is the only liquid capable of filling that role. The idea that an extraterrestrial life-form might be based on a solvent other than water has been taken seriously in recent scientific literature by the biochemist Steven Benner[32] and by the astrobiological committee chaired by John A.

Carl Sagan once described himself as both a carbon chauvinist and a water chauvinist; [38] however, on another occasion he said that he was a carbon chauvinist but "not that much of a water chauvinist".

Water as a compound is cosmically abundant, although much of it is Melba Moore - Dont Cry the form of vapour or ice. Subsurface liquid water is considered likely or possible on several of the outer moons: Enceladus where geysers have been observedEuropaTitanand Ganymede.

Earth and Titan are the only worlds currently known to have stable bodies of liquid on their surfaces. Not all properties of water are necessarily advantageous for life, however. During ice agesas reflective ice builds up over the surface of the water, the effects of global cooling are increased. There are some properties that make certain compounds and elements much more favorable than others as solvents in a successful biosphere. Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) solvent must be able to exist in liquid equilibrium over a range of temperatures the planetary object would normally encounter.

Because boiling points vary with the pressure, the question tends not to be does the prospective solvent remain liquid, but at what pressure. The ammonia molecule NH 3like the water molecule, is abundant in the universe, being a compound of hydrogen the simplest and most common element with another very common element, nitrogen.

Haldane raised the topic at a symposium about life's origin. Numerous chemical reactions are possible in an ammonia solution, and liquid ammonia has chemical similarities with water. Conversely, using a solvent system definition of acidity and basicity, water added to liquid ammonia functions as an acid, because it increases the Υπάρχει Αγάπη - Ηλίας Κλωναρίδης - Ηλίας Κλωναρίδης of the cation ammonium.

However, ammonia has some problems as a basis for life. The hydrogen bonds between ammonia molecules are weaker than those in water, causing ammonia's heat of vaporization to be half that of water, its surface tension to be a third, and reducing its ability to concentrate non-polar molecules through a hydrophobic effect.

Gerald Feinberg and Robert Shapiro have questioned whether ammonia could hold prebiotic molecules together well enough to allow the emergence of a self-reproducing system. A biosphere based on ammonia would likely exist at temperatures or air pressures that are extremely unusual in relation to life on Earth.

Chemical reactions generally proceed more slowly at a lower temperature. Therefore, ammonia-based life, if it exists, might metabolize more slowly and evolve more slowly than life on Earth. Ammonia and ammonia—water mixtures remain liquid at temperatures far below the freezing point of pure water, so such biochemistries might be well suited to planets and moons orbiting outside the water-based habitability zone.

Such conditions could exist, for example, under the surface of Saturn 's largest moon Titan. Methane CH 4 is a simple hydrocarbon: that is, a compound of two of the most common elements in the cosmos: hydrogen and carbon. It has a cosmic abundance comparable with ammonia. Isaac Asimov, Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) biochemist and science fiction writer, suggested in that poly- lipids could form a substitute for proteins in a non-polar solvent such as methane.

There is debate about the effectiveness of methane and other hydrocarbons as a solvent for life compared to water or ammonia. Astrobiologist Chris McKay has argued, on thermodynamic grounds, that if life does exist on Titan's surface, using hydrocarbons as a solvent, it is likely also to use the more complex hydrocarbons as an energy source by reacting them with hydrogen, reducing ethane and acetylene to methane.

As Strobel noted, his findings were in line with the effects Chris McKay had predicted if methanogenic life-forms were present. A hypothetical cell membrane termed an azotosome capable of functioning in liquid methane in Titan conditions was computer-modeled in an article published in February Composed of acrylonitrilea small molecule containing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, it is predicted to have stability and flexibility in liquid methane comparable to that of a phospholipid bilayer the type of cell membrane possessed by all life on Earth in liquid water.

Hydrogen fluoride HFlike water, is a polar molecule, and due to its polarity it can dissolve many ionic compounds. HF also makes hydrogen bonds with its neighbor molecules, as do water and ammonia.

It has been considered as a possible solvent for life by scientists such as Peter Sneath [59] and Carl Sagan. HF is dangerous to the systems of molecules that Earth-life is made of, but certain other organic compounds, such as paraffin waxesare stable with it. Using a solvent system definition of acidity and basicity, nitric acid functions as a base when it is added to liquid HF.

However, hydrogen fluoride is cosmically rare, unlike water, ammonia, and methane. Hydrogen sulfide is the closest chemical analog to water[62] but is less polar and a weaker inorganic solvent. Hydrogen-sulfide life might use a mixture of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide as their carbon source.

They might produce and live on sulfur monoxidewhich is analogous to oxygen O 2. Hydrogen sulfide, like hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, suffers from the small temperature range where it is liquid, though that, like that of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, increases with increasing pressure. Silicon dioxidealso known as silica and quartz, is very abundant in the universe and has a large temperature range where it is liquid.

Silicates are similar to silicon dioxide and some could have lower boiling points than silica. Gerald Feinberg and Robert Shapiro have suggested that molten silicate rock could serve as a liquid medium for organisms with a chemistry based on silicon, oxygen, and other elements such as aluminium. Sulfuric acid in liquid form is strongly polar.

Sulfuric acid is known to be abundant in the clouds of Venusin the form of aerosol droplets. A proposal has been made that life on Mars may exist and be using a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide as its solvent. It is also hygroscopican advantage in a water-scarce environment.

Supercritical carbon dioxide has been proposed as a candidate for alternative biochemistry due to its ability to selectively dissolve organic compounds and assist the functioning of enzymes and because Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) or "super-Venus"-type planets with dense high-pressure atmospheres may be common.

Physicists have noted that, although photosynthesis on Earth generally involves green plants, a variety of other-colored Life Based Body Forms - Folest - Folest II (File) could also support photosynthesis, essential for most life on Earth, and that other colors might be preferred in places that receive a different mix of stellar radiation than Earth.

Many Earth plants and animals undergo major biochemical changes during their life cycles as a response to changing environmental conditions, for example, by having a spore or hibernation state that can be sustained for years or even millennia between more active life stages.


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  2. Archaea. Archaea – a domain of single-celled microorganisms, morphologically similar to bacteria, but they possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, notably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. Many archaea are extremophiles, which means living in harsh environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes, but they have.
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