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Mendelssohn's compositions include symphoniesconcertospiano music and chamber music. The melody for the Christmas carol " Hark! The Herald Angels Sing " is also his. Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions. A grandson of the philosopher Moses MendelssohnFelix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family.
He was brought up without religion until the age of seven, when he was baptised as a Reformed Christian. Felix was recognised early as a musical prodigybut his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent.
Mendelssohn enjoyed early success in Germany, and revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bachnotably with his performance of the St Matthew Passion in His essentially Carl Ludvig Lithander, Thomas Bystrom, Fredrik I.
Lithander - Sonata for piano in C major musical tastes set him apart from more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz LisztRichard WagnerCharles-Valentin Alkan and Hector Berlioz. The Leipzig Conservatory[n 3] which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical tastes and antisemitism in the late 19th and early 20th Allegro Moderato - Beethoven*, Rudolf Serkin, Seiji Ozawa, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Tanglewood Fes, his creative originality has been re-evaluated.
He is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era. Felix Mendelssohn was born on 3 Februaryin Hamburgat the time an independent city-state, [n 4] in the same house where, a year later, the dedicatee and first performer of his Violin Concerto, Ferdinand Davidwould be born.
The family moved to Berlin inleaving Hamburg in disguise in fear of French reprisal for the Mendelssohn bank 's role in breaking Napoleon 's Continental System blockade. Fanny became a pianist well known in Berlin musical circles as a composer; originally Abraham had thought that she, rather than Felix, would be the more musical. But it was not considered proper, by either Abraham or Felix, for a woman to pursue a career in music, so she remained an active but non-professional musician.
Mendelssohn grew up in an intellectual environment. Frequent visitors to Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time salon organised by his parents at their home in Berlin included artists, musicians and scientists, among them Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldtand the mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet whom Mendelssohn's sister Rebecka would later marry.
Abraham Mendelssohn renounced the Jewish religion prior to Felix's birth; he and his wife decided not to have Felix circumcisedin contravention of the Jewish tradition. Abraham and his wife Lea were baptised inand formally adopted the surname Mendelssohn Bartholdy which they had used since for themselves and for their children.
Letter to Felix of 8 July Mendelssohn began taking piano lessons from his mother when he was six, and at seven was tutored by Marie Bigot in Paris. Zelter had almost certainly been recommended as a teacher by his aunt Sarah Levywho had been a pupil of W. Bach Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time a patron of C. Sarah Levy displayed some talent as a keyboard player, Loco - Sergio Gisbert - En Esta Tierra often played with Zelter's orchestra at the Berliner Singakademie ; she and the Mendelssohn family were among its leading patrons.
Sarah had formed an important collection of Bach family manuscripts which she bequeathed to the Singakademie; Zelter, whose tastes in music were conservative, was also an admirer of the Bach tradition. His fugues and chorales especially reflect a tonal clarity and use of counterpoint reminiscent of Johann Sebastian Bachwhose music influenced him deeply. Mendelssohn probably made his first public concert appearance at the age of nine, when he participated in a chamber music concert accompanying a horn duo.
As an adolescent, his works were often performed at home with a private orchestra for the associates of his wealthy parents amongst the intellectual elite of Berlin. It was probably Abraham Mendelssohn who procured the publication of this quartet by the house of Schlesinger. At age 16 Mendelssohn wrote his String Octet in E-flat majora work which has been regarded as "mark[ing] the beginning of his maturity as a composer.
Later, inhe also wrote incidental music for the play, including the famous " Wedding March ". In Mendelssohn studied under the composer and piano virtuoso Ignaz Moscheleswho confessed in his diaries  that he had little to teach him.
Moscheles and Mendelssohn became close colleagues and lifelong friends. The failure of this production left him disinclined to venture into the genre again.
Besides music, Mendelssohn's education included art, literature, languages, and philosophy. In Zelter introduced Mendelssohn to his friend and correspondent Johann Wolfgang von Goethe then in his seventieswho was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter:.
Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions,  and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. Inwith the backing of Zelter and the assistance of the actor Eduard DevrientMendelssohn arranged and conducted a performance in Berlin of Bach's St Matthew Passion. Four years previously his grandmother, Bella Salomonhad given him a copy of the manuscript of this by then all-but-forgotten masterpiece. The success of this performance, one of the very few since Bach's death and the first ever outside of Leipzig[n 6] was the central event in the revival of Bach's music in Germany and, eventually, throughout Europe.
It also led to one of the few explicit references which Mendelssohn made to his origins: "To think that it took an actor and a Jew's son to revive the greatest Christian music for the Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time Over the next few years Mendelssohn travelled widely.
His first visit to England was in ; other places visited during the s included Vienna, Florence, Milan, Rome and Naples, in all of which he met with local and visiting musicians and artists.
These years proved to be the germination for some of his most famous works, including the Hebrides Overture and the Scottish and Italian symphonies. On Zelter's death inMendelssohn had hopes of succeeding him as conductor of the Singakademie; but at a vote in January he was defeated for the post by Carl Friedrich Rungenhagen.
This may have been because of Mendelssohn's youth, and fear of possible innovations; it was also suspected by some to be attributable to his Jewish ancestry. This precipitated a Handel revival in Germany, similar to the reawakened interest in J. Bach following his performance of the St. Matthew Passion. He had offers from both Munich and Leipzig for important musical posts, namely, direction of the Munich Operathe editorship of the prestigious Leipzig music journal the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitungand direction of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra ; he accepted the latter in In Leipzig, Mendelssohn concentrated on developing the town's musical life by working with the orchestra, the opera house, the Thomanerchor of which Bach had been a directorand the city's other choral and musical institutions.
Mendelssohn's concerts included, in addition to many of his own works, three series of "historical concerts" featuring music of the eighteenth century, and a number of works by his contemporaries. Robert Schumann discovered the manuscript of Schubert's Ninth Symphony and sent it to Mendelssohn, who promptly premiered it in Leipzig on 21 Marchmore than a decade after Schubert's death. A landmark event during Mendelssohn's Leipzig years was the premiere of his oratorio Paulusthe English version of this is known as St.
Paul seemed to many of Mendelssohn's contemporaries to be his finest work, and sealed his European reputation. When Friedrich Wilhelm IV came to Voyageur - Enigma - Voyageur Prussian throne in with ambitions to develop Berlin as a cultural centre including the establishment of a music school, and reform of music for the churchthe obvious choice to head these reforms was Mendelssohn.
He was reluctant to undertake the task, especially in the light of Andrea Chénier (Parte 19) - U.
Giordano* - Andrea Chénier - Serie N. 166 existing strong position in Leipzig. He was therefore not displeased to have the excuse to return to Leipzig. Other prominent musicians, including the string players Ferdinand David and Joseph Joachim and the music theorist Moritz Hauptmannalso became staff members. Mendelssohn first visited Britain inwhere Moscheles, who had already settled in London, introduced him to influential musical circles. In the summer he visited Edinburghwhere he met among others the composer John Thomsonwhom he later recommended for the post of Professor of Music at Edinburgh University.
He first heard Bennett perform in London in aged It was composed Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time a German text translated into English by William Bartholomewwho authored and translated many of Mendelssohn's works during his time in England. Mendelssohn suffered from poor health in the final years of his life, probably aggravated by nervous problems and overwork.
A final tour of England left him exhausted and ill, and the death of his sister, Fanny, on 14 Maycaused him further distress. Less than six months later, on 4 November, aged 38, Mendelssohn died in Leipzig after a series of strokes.
The pallbearers included Moscheles, Schumann and Niels Gade. While Mendelssohn was often presented as equable, happy, and placid in temperament, particularly in the detailed family memoirs published by his nephew Sebastian Hensel after the composer's death,  this was misleading. The music historian R. Larry Todd notes "the remarkable process of idealization" of Mendelssohn's character "that crystallized in the memoirs of the composer's circle", including Hensel's.
Devrient mentions that on one occasion in the s, when his wishes had been Goodnight - Tity Boi* - Codeine Cowboy: A 2 Chainz Collective, "his excitement was increased so fearfully The stern voice of his father at last checked the wild torrent of words; they took him to bed, and a profound sleep of twelve hours restored him to his normal state".
Mendelssohn was an enthusiastic visual artist who worked in pencil and watercoloura skill which he enjoyed throughout his life. On 21 Marchat the age of seven years, Mendelssohn was baptised with his brother and sisters in a home ceremony by Johann Jakob Stegemann, minister of the Evangelical congregation of Berlin's Jerusalem Church and New Church.
He was the prime mover in proposing to the publisher Heinrich Brockhaus a complete edition of Moses's works, which continued with the support of his uncle, Joseph Mendelssohn. Throughout his life Mendelssohn was wary of the more radical musical developments undertaken by some of his contemporaries. In particular, Mendelssohn seems to have regarded Paris and its music with the greatest of The Monks Of Casamari - Otto Preminger, Jerome Moross - The Cardinal and an Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time puritanical distaste.
Attempts made during his visit there to interest him in Saint-Simonianism ended in embarrassing scenes. Moscheles preserved this conservative attitude at the Leipzig Conservatory until his own death in The second youngest Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time , Felix August, contracted measles in and was left with impaired health; he died in Marie married Victor Benecke and lived in London.
The family papers inherited by Marie's and Lili's children form the basis of the extensive Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time of Mendelssohn manuscripts, including the so-called "Green Books" of his correspondence, now in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University. Mendelssohn became close to the Swedish soprano Jenny Lindwhom he met in October Papers confirming their relationship had not been made public.
Mendelssohn met and worked with Lind many times, and started an opera, Loreleifor her, based on the legend of the Lorelei Mina/Dracula - Wojciech Kilar - Bram Stokers Dracula (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) maidens; the opera was unfinished I Heard You Are Doing Better Now - Infinity Crush - Stumble Pretty his death.
He is said to have tailored the aria "Hear Ye Israel", in his oratorio Elijahto Lind's voice, although she did not sing the part until after his death, at a concert in December The music critic Henry Chorleywho was with him, wrote: "I see as I write the Sigvart Dagsland - Se Så Lykkelige with which Mendelssohn, whose enjoyment of Mdlle.
Lind's talent was unlimited, turned round and looked at me, as if a load of anxiety had been taken off his mind. His attachment to Mdlle. Lind's genius as a singer was unbounded, as was his desire for her success.
Upon Mendelssohn's death, Lind wrote: "[He was] the only person who brought fulfillment to my spirit, and almost as soon as I found him I lost him again. The first winner of the scholarship, inwas Arthur Sullivanthen aged InLind erected a plaque in Mendelssohn's memory at his birthplace in Hamburg. Something of Mendelssohn's intense attachment to his personal vision of music is conveyed in his comments to a correspondent who suggested converting some of the Songs Without Words into lieder by adding texts: "What [the] music I love expresses to me, are not thoughts that are too indefinite for me to put into words, but on Born Under A Star - Marie Lind - Christmas Time contrary, too definite.
Schumann wrote of Mendelssohn that he was "the Mozart of the nineteenth century, the most brilliant musician, the one who most clearly sees through the contradictions of the age and for the first time reconciles them.
First, that his inspiration for musical style was rooted in his technical mastery and his interpretation of the style of previous masters,  although he certainly recognized and developed the strains of early Romanticism in the music of Beethoven and Weber. Berlioz said of Mendelssohn that he had "perhaps studied the music of the dead too closely.
The musicologist Greg Vitercik considers that, while "Mendelssohn's music only rarely aspires to provoke", the stylistic innovations evident from his earliest works solve some of the contradictions between classical forms and the sentiments of Romanticism.
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