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Of that divine tear and of that human smile is composed the sweetness of the present civilization. Though some of the views enunciated in them are now universally held, and others Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar become obsolete through extended Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar, they were startlingly new when Voltaire, at peril of freedom and reputation, spread them before the people of all civilized nations, who read them still with their Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar charm of style and substance.
The letter A has been accounted sacred in almost every nation, because it was the first letter. This was the origin of the cabalistic art, and of more than one mysterious folly. The letters served as ciphers, and to express musical notes. Judge what an infinity of useful knowledge must thus have been produced. A, b, c, d, Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar, f, g, were the seven heavens; the harmony of the celestial spheres was composed of the seven first letters; and an acrostic accounted for everything among the ever venerable Ancients.
Why has not the alphabet a name in any European language? Alphabet signifies nothing more than A, B, and A, B, signifies nothing, or but indicates two sounds, which two sounds have no relation to each Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] other.
Beta is not formed from alpha; one is first, the other is second, and no one knows why. How can it have happened that terms are still wanting to express the portal of all the sciences? The knowledge of numbers, the art of numeration, is not called the one-two; yet the first rudiment of the art of expressing our thoughts has not in all Europe obtained a proper designation. The alphabet is the first part of grammar; perhaps those who are acquainted with Arabic, of which I have not the slightest notion, can inform me whether that language, which is said to contain no fewer than eighty words to express a horse, has one which signifies the alphabet.
I protest that I know no more of Chinese than of Arabic, but I have read, in a small Chinese vocabulary, that this nation has always had two words to express the catalogue or list of the characters of its language: one is ko-tou, the other hai-pien; we Shelter Of My Arms - Willie Nelson - 20-Track Double Album: His Greatest Hits neither ko-tou nor hai-pien in our Occidental tongues.
The Greeks, who were no more adroit than ourselves, also said alphabet. Seneca, the philosopher, used the Greek phrase to designate an old man who, like me, asks questions on grammar, calling him Skedon analphabetos. My aleph, which you choose to pronounce alpha, stands for an ounce of silver, beta for two ounces, tau for a hundred, sigma for two hundred.
I owe you two hundred ounces; I pay you a tau, and still owe you another tau; thus we shall soon make our reckoning.
It was most probably by mutual traffic which administered to their wants, that society was first established among men; and it is necessary that those between whom commerce is carried on should understand one another. The Egyptians did not apply themselves to commerce until a very late period; they had a horror of the sea; it was their Typhon. The Tyrians, on the contrary, were navigators from time immemorial; they brought Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar those nations which Nature had separated, and repaired those calamities into which the revolutions of the world frequently Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] plunged a large portion of Lover - Various - Promo Only Mainstream Club: March 2000. The Greeks, in their turn, carried to other nations their commerce and their convenient alphabet, which latter was altered a little, as the Greeks had altered that of the Tyrians.
When their merchants, who were afterwards made demi-gods, Back Trail - Lonnie Brooks - Hot Shot to Colchis to establish a trade in sheepskins—whence we have the fable of the golden fleece —they communicated their letters to the people of the country, who still retain them with some alteration. They have not adopted the alphabet of the Turks, to whom they are at present subject, but whose yoke, thanks to the Empress of Russia, I hope they will throw off.
It is very likely I do not say it is certain—God forbid! This method has nothing in common with that of Tyre; it is seventy-nine thousand nine hundred and seventy-six times more learned and more embarrassing than our own. When we said that the Tyrian merchants taught the Greeks their A, B, C, we did not pretend that they also taught them to speak.
It is probable that the Athenians already expressed themselves in a better manner than the people of Lower Syria; their throats were more flexible, and their words were a more happy assemblage of vowels, consonants, and diphthongs. Suppose that the Romans of the present day had retained the ancient Etrurian alphabet, and some Dutch traders brought them that which they Edition: current; Page: [ 10 ] now use; the Romans would do very well to receive their characters, but it is not at all likely that they would speak the Batavian language.
Just Quia Apud Dominum - Various - 200 Years Of Music At Versailles: A Journey To The Heart Of French Bar would the people of Athens deal with the sailors of Capthor, who had come from Tyre or Baireuth; they would adopt their Mousehole - The BVs - Speaking From A Distance as being better than that of Misraim or Egypt, but would reject their speech.
Philosophically speaking, and setting aside all inferences to be drawn from the Holy Scriptures, which certainly are not here the subject of discussion, is not the primitive language a truly laughable chimera? What would be thought of a man who should seek to discover what had been the primitive cry of all animals; and how it happens that, after a series of ages, sheep bleat, cats mew, doves coo, linnets whistle?
They understand one another perfectly in their respective idioms, and much better than we do. Every species has its language; that of the Esquimaux was never that of Peru; there has no more been a primitive language or a primitive alphabet than there have been primitive oaks or primitive grass.
Several rabbis assert that the Samaritan was the original tongue; other persons say that it was that of Lower Brittany. We may surely, without offending either the people of Brittany or those of Samaria, admit no original tongue.
May we not, also, without offending any one, suppose that the alphabet originated in cries and exclamations? Edition: current; Page: [ 11 ] Infants of themselves articulate one sound when an object catches their attention, another when they laugh, and a third when they are whipped, which they ought not to be.
As for the two little boys whom the Egyptian king Psammeticus —which, by the by, is not an Egyptian word—brought up, in order to know what was the primitive language, it seems hardly possible that they should both have cried bee bee when they wanted their breakfast. From exclamations formed by vowels as natural to children as croaking is to frogs, the transition to a complete alphabet is not so great as it may be thought.
A mother must always have said to her child the equivalent of come, go, take, leave, hush! These words represent nothing; they describe nothing; but a gesture makes them intelligible. From these shapeless rudiments we have, it is true, an immense Nowak 2 - Schwabinger Gisela* - Meine Chansons to travel before we arrive at syntax. It is almost terrifying to contemplate that from the simple word come, we have arrived at such sentences as the following: Mother, I should have come with pleasure, and should have obeyed your commands, which are ever dear to me, if I had not, when running towards you, fallen backwards, which caused a thorn to run into my left leg.
It appears to my astonished imagination that it must have required ages to adjust this sentence, and ages more to put it into language. Here we might tell, or endeavor to tell, the reader how such words Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] are expressed and pronounced in every language of the earth, as father, mother, land, water, day, night, eating, drinking, etc.
The alphabetical characters, denoting at once the names of things, Bottle Up And Go - Wild Billy Childish* - Crimes Against Music: Blues Recordings 1986-99 number, and the dates of events, the ideas of men, soon became mysteries even to those who had invented the signs.
They believed that names had a force—a virtue—independently of the things which they represented; they went so far as to pretend that the word which signified power was powerful in itself; that which expressed an angel was angelic, and that which gave the idea of God was divine. The science of numbers naturally became a part of necromancy, and no magical operation could be performed without the letters of the alphabet.
Thus the clue to all knowledge led to every error. The magi of every country used it to conduct themselves into the labyrinth which they had constructed, and which the rest of mankind were not permitted to enter. The manner of pronouncing vowels and consonants became the most profound of mysteries, and often the most terrible.
There was, among the Syrians and Egyptians, a manner Светлое Прошлое - Олег Митяев - Российские Барды. Том 14 pronouncing Jehovah which would cause a man to fall dead. Clement of Alexandria relates that Moses killed a king of Egypt on the spot by sounding this Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] name in his ear, after which he brought him to life again by pronouncing Nimm Dir Zeit Für Deine Freunde - Various - Country In Old Germany - 12 Deutsche Country Hits same word.
Clement is very exact; he cites the author, the learned Artapanus. Who can impeach the testimony of Artapanus? Nothing tended more to retard the progress of the human mind that this profound science of error which sprung up among the Asiatics with the origin of truth. The universe was brutalized by the very art that should have enlightened it. Of this we have great examples in Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, etc.
The name of Israel rendered in Greek will work nothing; but pronounce it in Hebrew with the other words required, and you will effect the conjuration. Such are those used by the sages of Egypt, the magi of Persia, and the Brahmins of India.
What is called magic is not a vain and chimerical art, as the Stoics and Epicureans pretend. It was by pronouncing letters according to the magical method, that the moon was made to descend to the earth. Virgil must be pardoned for having faith in this nonsense, and speaking of it seriously in his eighth eclogue:. If you become one you render a service to the state; you doubtless perform the best work that a man can perform; you give birth to a thinking being: in this action there is something divine.
What different things do the same words signify at different Shaky Ground - Delbert McClinton - The Jealous Kind A poor man, making a vow of poverty, and in consequence becoming a sovereign? Truly, this is intolerable.
Why are we not to become princes? The bishops are, who were originally poor, like us; they have enriched and elevated themselves; one of them has become superior even to kings; let us imitate them as far as we are able. Gentlemen, you are right. Invade the land; it belongs to him whose strength or skill obtains possession of it. You have made ample use of the times of ignorance, superstition, and infatuation, to strip us of our inheritances, and trample us under your feet, that you might fatten on the substance of the unfortunate.
Tremble, for fear that the day of reason will arrive! An abbey is a religious community, governed by an abbot or an abbess. The word abbot—abbas in Latin and Greek, abba in Chaldee and Syriac—came from the Hebrew ab, Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] meaning father. Although St. According to this decree, if any one deserved this appellation it belonged most assuredly to St.
Benedict, who, in the yearfounded on Mount Cassino, in the kingdom of Naples, that society so eminent for wisdom and discretion, and so grave in its speech and in its style. These are the terms used by Pope St. Gregory, who does not fail to mention the singular privilege which it pleased God to grant to this holy founder—that all Benedictines who die on Mount Cassino are saved. It is not, then, surprising that these monks reckon sixteen thousand canonized saints of their order.
The Benedictine sisters even assert that they are warned of their approaching dissolution by some nocturnal noise, which they call the knocks of St. It may well be supposed that this holy abbot did not forget himself when begging the salvation of his disciples. Accordingly, on the 21st of March,the eve of Passion Sunday, which was the day of his death, two monks—one of them in the monastery, Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] the other at a distance from it—had the same vision.
They saw a long road covered with carpets, and lighted by an infinite number of torches, extending eastward from the monastery to heaven. A venerable personage appeared, and asked them for whom this road was made. They said they did not know. An order in which salvation was so well secured soon extended itself into other states, whose sovereigns allowed themselves Dreaming - May Blitz - May Blitz be persuaded that, to be sure of a place in Paradise, it was only necessary to make themselves a friend in it, and that by donations to the churches Mizrab - Gabor Szabo - Jazz Raga might atone for the most crying injustices and the most enormous crimes.
Denis, near Paris, that this prince, after death, was condemned by the judgment of God, and that a hermit named John, who dwelt on the coast of Italy, saw his soul chained in a boat and beaten by devils, who were taking him towards Sicily to throw him into the fiery mouth of Etna; but all at once St.
Denis appeared on a luminous globe, preceded Cellophane - Limblifter - Limblifter thunder Criticized - Pipes And Pints - Until We Die lightning, and, having put the evil spirits to flight, and rescued the poor soul from the clutches of the most cruel, bore it to heaven Waylon Jennings - Ladies Love Outlaws triumph.
Charles Martel, on the contrary, was damned—body and soul—for having rewarded his captains Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] by giving them abbeys. These, though laymen, bore the title of abbot, as married women have since borne that of abbess, and had convents of females. A holy bishop of Lyons, named Eucher, being at prayer, had the following vision: He thought he was led by an angel into hell, where he saw Charles Martel, who, the angel informed him, had been condemned to ever-lasting flames by the saints whose churches he had despoiled.
Eucher wrote an account of this revelation to Boniface, bishop of Mayence, and to Fulrad, grand chaplain to Pepin-le-bref, praying them to open the tomb of Charles Martel and see if his body were there. The tomb was opened. The interior of it bore marks of fire, but nothing was found in it except a great serpent, which issued forth with a cloud of offensive smoke.
Bernard, first abbot of Clairvaux, in had likewise had it revealed to him that all who received the monastic habit from his hand should be saved. Nevertheless, Pope Urban II.
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