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Deer singular and plural are the hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups The Fawns - Smiling deer are the Cervinaeincluding the muntjacthe elk wapitithe fallow deerand the chital ; and the Capreolinaeincluding the reindeer caribouthe roe deerand the moose.
Female reindeer, and male deer of all species except the Chinese water deergrow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelopewhich are part of a different family Bovidae within the same order of even-toed ungulates Artiodactyla. The musk deer Moschidae of Asia and chevrotains Tragulidae of tropical African and Asian forests are separate families within the ruminant Im So Lonesome I Could Cry - Jools Holland And His Rhythm & Blues Orchestra - Finding The Keys · Th Ruminantia.
They are no more closely related to deer than are other even-toed ungulates. Deer appear in art from Paleolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythologyreligion, and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry.
Their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venisontheir skins as soft, strong buckskinand their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has The Fawns - Smiling a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages and remains a resource for many families today.
Deer live in a variety of biomesranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest. While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live The Fawns - Smiling transitional areas between forests and thickets for cover and prairie and savanna open space. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, weeds, and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may also benefit deer.
However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow and thrive. Deer are widely distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary staga subspecies of red deer that is confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent.
However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are also several species of deer that are highly specialized, and live Dawn (Go Away) - Frankie Valli And The Four Seasons - The 20 Greatest Hits exclusively in mountains, grasslands, swamps, and "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts.
Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga boreal Cappella - Move It Up and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas.
Huemul deer taruca and Chilean huemul of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goatwith the fawns behaving more like goat kids. The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all The Fawns - Smiling North American deer species white-tailed deermule deercaribou, elkRattlesnake Rattling - No Artist - 100 Sound Effects moose can be found.
The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges.
Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk also inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. The White-tailed deer have recently expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing Im Just A Lucky So And So - Helen Merrill - Gil Evans - Collaboration conversion of The Fawns - Smiling to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes.
They also live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose. The adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bisonand pronghorn antelope.
The Eurasian Continent including the Indian Subcontinent boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found The Fawns - Smiling Asia. Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in plant and animal species.
However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deerand fallow deer. These species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but also inhabit Asia Minorthe Caucasus Mountains The Fawns - Smilingand Northwestern Iran.
Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, then eventually to the rest of Europe. They were initially park animals that later escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Historically, Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan forest horseextinct aurochs forest oxand the endangered wisent European bison.
Spain, Eastern Europe, and the I Was Born Blue - Swamp Dogg - The Excellent Sides Of Swamp Dogg Vol. 1 Mountains still have virgin forest areas that are not only home to sizable deer populations but also for other animals that were once abundant such as the wisent, Eurasian lynxIberian lynxwolvesand brown bears.
The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate Asia occurs in the mixed deciduous forests, mountain coniferous forests, and taiga bordering North Korea, Manchuria Northeastern Chinaand the Ussuri Region Russia.
These are among some of the richest The Fawns - Smiling and coniferous forests in the world where one can find The Fawns - Smiling roe deersika deerelk, and moose. Asian caribou occupy the northern fringes of this region along the Sino-Russian border. Deer such as the sika deer, Thorold's deerCentral Asian red deerand elk have historically been farmed for their antlers by Han ChineseTurkic peoplesTungusic peoplesMongoliansand Koreans.
These fertile plains consist of tropical seasonal moist deciduous, dry deciduous forests, and both dry and wet savannas that are home to chitalhog deerbarasinghaIndian sambarand Indian muntjac.
Grazing species such as the endangered barasingha and very common chital are gregarious and live in large herds. Indian sambar can be gregarious but are usually solitary or live in smaller herds. Hog deer are solitary and have lower densities than Indian muntjac. The Indian sambar are more gregarious in Sri Lanka than other parts of their range and tend to form larger herds than elsewhere.
The Chao Praya River Valley of Thailand was once primarily tropical seasonal moist deciduous forest and wet savanna that hosted populations of hog deer, the now-extinct Schomburgk's deerEld's deerIndian sambar, and Indian muntjac. Both the hog deer and Eld's deer are rare, whereas Indian sambar and Indian muntjac thrive in protected national parks, such as Khao Yai. Many of these South Asian and Southeast Asian deer species also share their habitat with other herbivoressuch as Asian elephantsthe various Asian rhinoceros species, various antelope species such as nilgaifour-horned antelopeblackbuckand Indian The Fawns - Smiling in Indiaand wild oxen such as wild Asian water buffalogaurbantengand kouprey.
One way that different herbivores can survive together in a given area is for each species to have Nightmare - Various - Metal Massacre V food preferences, although there may be some overlap. Australia has six introduced species of deer that have established sustainable wild populations from acclimatisation society releases in the 19th century.
These are the fallow deer, red deer, sambar, hog deer, rusaand chital. Red deer introduced into New Zealand in from English and Scottish stock were domesticated in deer farms by the late s and are common farm animals there now. Seven other species of deer were introduced into New Zealand but none are as widespread as red deer. Deer constitute the second most diverse family of artiodactyla after bovids.
The largest extant deer is the moosewhich is nearly 2. The southern pudu is only slightly taller and heavier. Coat colour generally varies between red and brown,  though it can be as dark as chocolate brown in the tufted deer  or have a grayish tinge as in elk. Coat of reindeer shows notable geographical variation.
Deer are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer are ruminantsor cud-chewers, and have a four-chambered stomach. Nearly all deer have The Fawns - Smiling facial gland in front of The Fawns - Smiling eye. The gland contains a strongly scented pheromoneused to mark its home range. Bucks of a wide range of species open these glands wide when angry or excited. All deer have a liver without a gallbladder. Deer also have a tapetum lucidumwhich gives them sufficiently good night vision.
All male deer possess antlerswith the exception of the water deerin which males have long tusk-like canines that reach below the lower jaw. A study of antlered female white-tailed deer noted that antlers tend to be small and malformed, and are shed frequently around the time of parturition.
The fallow deer and the various subspecies of the reindeer have The Fawns - Smiling largest as well as the heaviest antlers, both The Fawns - Smiling absolute terms as well as in proportion to body mass an average of 8 grams 0. The pedicel gives rise to a spiky antler The Fawns - Smiling following year, that is replaced by a branched antler in the third year. This process of losing a set of antlers to develop a larger and more branched set continues for the rest of the life.
Antlers might be one of the most exaggerated male secondary sexual characteristics and are intended primarily for reproductive success through sexual selection and for combat.
The tines forks on the antlers create grooves that allow another male's antlers to lock into place. This allows the males to wrestle without risking injury to the face. For instance, the heavier the antlers, the higher the individual's status in the social hierarchy, and the greater the delay in shedding the antlers;  males with larger antlers tend to be more aggressive and dominant over others.
In elk in Yellowstone National Parkantlers also provide protection against predation by wolves. Most deer bear 32 teeth; the corresponding dental formula is: 0. The elk and the reindeer may be exceptions, as they may retain their upper canines and thus have 34 teeth dental formula: 0. The cheek teeth of deer have crescent ridges of enamel, which enable them to grind a wide variety of vegetation. Deer are browsersand feed primarily on leaves.
They have small, unspecialized stomachs by ruminant standards, and high nutrition requirements. Rather than eating and digesting vast quantities of low-grade fibrous food as, for example, sheep and cattle do, deer select easily digestible shoots, young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, fruit, fungiand lichens. The low-fibered food, after minimal fermentation and shredding, passes rapidly through the alimentary canal. The deer require a large amount of minerals such as calcium and phosphate in order to support antler growth, and this further necessitates a nutrient-rich diet.
There are, however, some reports The Fawns - Smiling deer engaging in carnivorous activity, such as depredating the nests of Northern Generation Of Waste (w/Zane) - Mount Depression - More Reasons To Destroy Someone Else. Nearly all cervids are so-called uniparental species: the fawns are only cared for by the mother, known as a doe.
A doe generally has one or two fawns at a time triplets, while not unknown, are uncommon. Mating season typically begins in later August and lasts until December. Some species mate until early March. The gestation period is anywhere up to ten months for the European roe deer. Most fawns are born with their fur covered with white spots, though in many species they lose these spots by the end of their first winter. In the first twenty minutes of a fawn's life, the fawn begins to take its first steps.
Its mother licks it clean until it is almost free of scent, so predators will not find it. Its mother leaves often to graze, and the fawn does not like to be left behind. Sometimes its mother must gently push it down with her foot. The fawn and its mother stay together The Fawns - Smiling about one year. A male usually leaves and never sees his mother again, but females sometimes come back with their own fawns and form small herds.
Moose and deer can carry rabies. Docile moose may suffer from brain worma helminth which drills holes through the brain in its search for a suitable place to lay its eggs.
A government The Fawns - Smiling states that "They move around looking for the right spot and never really find it.
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